Review Session

Review Session - Review Session mill and Montaigne think...

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Review Session - mill and Montaigne think that animals have natural moral status - kant thinks animals are things that can be used by people and their moral status - montaigne has the broadest standard – plants animals and humans have moral status - mill thinks animals and humans have moral status - locke and kant think people are the only ones with moral status - greek notion of barbarians - montaigne o languages that are not greek are inferior o idea behind it is that the unfamiliar is inferior o key notion for montaigne o if you have a group of people and they don’t have ships or different way of life does that make them inferior o no but people identify what is unfamiliar with what is inferior o he is skeptical about human reason o what is different is inferior – tendacy that people fall into - why does montaigne talk about cannibalism o natives eat people who are dead while Europeans torture people while they are alive o much worse to torture while alive then to eat a dead person because it is cruel o everyone thought cannibalism was the worst thing you could do, montaigne says it isn’t o he thinks cruelty is worse than cannibalism - distinction between skin and flesh is the difference between feeling and not feeling o montaignes moral standard is the feeling body o if you can feel then it has moral status o if its dead then it does not have moral status - his view on cruel and unusal punishment o cruelty should never be used as a punishment ever for any reason o no justification for treating someone cruelly - skepticism about reason o skeptical in of vehicles o can never know everything o consistency and completeness o two critera he has about truth o are statements consistent and do they completely describe something o our statements are never complete so we have to be skeptical about all of our statements o suspicious about how much we know o main reason: the Americas, new continent we didn’t know about o the world being round, sun is center o don’t have a complete understanding of the world - flesh is alive and feeling skin is dead and unfeeling
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- the living feeling body is the source of his moral philosophy Locke - how does locke define liberty o most important value o defines it in two ways o no one can coarse us into believing or thinking a certain thing o we are always free in that sense o free to consent to getting married, to adopting a job, to believing a religion, belonging to a certain nation o no one can coarse us, we can consent to become part of a group o center piece of his philosophy o montaignes is pain, but lockes is freedom - what’s lockes view about toleration o must practice toleration or else society won’t survive o toleration is the key o society will break down without it
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Review Session - Review Session mill and Montaigne think...

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