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geoscistudyguide

# geoscistudyguide - John Winthropsuggested that earthquakes...

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John Winthrop- suggested that earthquakes are waves within the earth” based on the observation of moving bricks in his chimney during the 1755 Boston earthquake. John Mitchell- -Attributed earthquakes to waves caused by shifting rocks deep within the earth (movement caused by fire and steam). - He worked out a method to calculate the location (epicenter) of an earthquake. Robert Mallet- (engineer) -Mapped earthquake zones around the Mediterranean -Suggested that earthquakes are elastic waves of compression caused by the sudden flexing or fracturing of the earths crust. John Milne- (geologist) founder of modern earthquake studies and the science of SEISMOLOGY. Seismic Waves: Body Waves: A) move within the body of a rock and through the Earth 1) P-waves: primary waves i. have the fastest velocities (between 300-450 km/minute), depends on rock density ii. back and forth waves 2) S-waves: secondary waves i. Roughly half the velocity of P-waves (between 150-225 km/minute) ii. Felt after the p-wave iii. Up and down waves Surface Waves: A) travel near the Earth’s surface a. L-waves (Love waves): slightly slower than S-waves

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i. Side to side waves b. Raleigh waves: also slightly slower than S-waves Look at page 10 of outline to see waves motion Monitoring and Predicting Earthquakes Seismic Gap Theory: The earth’s movements that ultimately lead to earthquakes are steady and constant, then: -Active regions that have been seismically quiet or
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