Slavic90CzechsStdyGde - 1 Czechs Slovaks I Dates A 1526 1...

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Czechs & Slovaks 1
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I. Dates A. 1526 1. In 1526 Vladislav's son, King Louis , was decisively defeated by the Ottomans (Turks) at the Battle of Mohács and subsequently died. As a result, the Turks conquered part of the Kingdom of Hungary; the rest (mainly Slovakia) came under Habsburg rule under the terms of King Louis' marriage contract. The Bohemian estates elected Archduke Ferdinand , younger brother of Emperor Charles V , to succeed Louis as king of Bohemia. Thus began almost four centuries of Habsburg rule for both Bohemia and Slovakia. B. 1620 1. Czech Nobles rebelled against the Habsburg Crown. On November 8, 1620, the decisive battle for the uprising took place at White Mountain (Bílá Hora) near Prague. It lasted two hours and the poorly paid and demoralized estates’ army lost the battle. The Battle of White Mountain went down in Czech national history as the beginning of a “dark period” involving the decline of the Czech nation. 2. 300 Years of Darkness. Day of Blood. a) Many Czechs were publicly executed, expelled, fled, or forcibly converted. b) Native Czech elite disappeared and assimilated in Germanic Culture. C. 1848 1. The Paris revolution of February 1848 precipitated a succession of liberal and national revolts against autocratic governments. Revolutionary disturbances pervaded the territories of the Austrian Empire, and Emperor Ferdinand I (1835-48) promised to reorganize the empire on a constitutional, parliamentary basis. 2. In the Bohemian Kingdom, a national committee was formed that included Germans and Czechs. But Bohemian Germans favored creating a Greater Germany out of various German-speaking territories. The Bohemian Germans soon withdrew from the committee, signaling the Czech-German conflict that would characterize subsequent history. Palacky proposed Austro-Slavism as the creed of the Czech national movement. He advocated the preservation of the Austrian Empire as a buffer against both German and Russian expansionism. He also proposed the federalization of the empire on an ethnographic basis to unite the Bohemian Germans with Austria in one province and Czechs and Slovaks in another. Palacky further suggested that the various Slavic peoples of the empire, together constituting a majority, should form a political unit to defend their common interests. In June 1848 the Czechs convened the first Slavic Congress to discuss the possibility of political consolidation of Austrian Slavs, including Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. 2
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3. National revival for the Czechs had been begun by small groups of intellectuals. At first, the national movements were confined to discussion of language, literature, and culture. But during the revolutions of 1848, the Czechs made bold political demands. The revolutions of 1848 also revealed that the German liberals, who were opposed to Habsburg absolutism, were equally hostile to Czech national aspirations. It had become clear that the Czech national movements had to contend not only with Habsburg absolutism but also with increasingly virulent German nationalism.
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