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Unformatted text preview: Akkad : AKA Sargon, the king of the northern Mesopotamian territory was the first great world-conqueror, drove his forces into the south and brought unity to the Sumerians. Chavin : Peru (3750-2850 BP) 1. Common artworks and architecture, raised temples with underground passageways. 2. Stratified society, some buried with great wealth. China: Yellow River, China 4200 BP 1.Gradual emergence of feudal states with peasant and noble class. 2. They had complicated irrigation, supported millet farming and pig raising in the early years. Later rice farming, cattle herding, and horses began to dominate. 3. Full blown imperial dynasty (Shang) by 3500 BP. Shang dynasty ruled by divination of cracked bones.Religious spets (shamans) interpreted the will of heaven from the bones. 4. Royal compound protected by a 10 meter high wall. 5. Elaborate treasure was buried in tombs with rulers. Human sacrifice--, servants, concubines, horses, etc all buried with ruler. Later (Qin & Han Dynasties) clay people were buried in tombs rather than live servants. 6. About 2500 ya picture writing is developed. Soon afterward Confucious, a mid- level state official, formalized the ethos of the time in written form. 7. Warlords ruled various regions and in 2700 ya there were more than 100 feudal states. Most of China was finally united around 2 kya and protected by the Great Wall constructed by the powerful emperors of the Han Dynasty. Circumscription theory: Robert Carneiro Because of increased productive capacity, populations in an area grow to the limit In areas that are environmentally circumscribed (I.e. by mountains, ocean, desert), there is nowhere for primary producers to move Thus, primary producers have no choice but to submit to political domination A political elite develops out of control of military force and/or some critical resource: water, land Problems with the circumscription theory : 1) Why not just escape to worse areas? Isnt freedom and poverty better than servitude and slavery maybe not, depends on how much you pay rent for the good areas. Americans pay about 20% in taxes yet there is no mass migration movement to elsewhere. 2) Why not just take over the land and evict the losers? This has happened in history (North America is good example). But perhaps always better to live off tribute rather than living off work. Classic Maya Cuneiform: Pressed into clay tablets They recorded everything from inventories, taxes, and love poems. It evolved from pictographic form to phonetic system with 2,000 symbols. Egypt : starting about 5100 BP the upper and lower Nile regions were ruled over by one ruler. 1. Writing on rolls woven from papyrus fibers. Example: the Book of the Dead....
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This note was uploaded on 05/15/2008 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Boone during the Spring '07 term at New Mexico.
- Spring '07