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antrhopology test 3 lectures

antrhopology test 3 lectures - Lecture 13 Civilization RISE...

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Lecture 13 : Civilization RISE OF CIVILIZATION Another development of the Holocene is the first appearance of centralized, stratified social formations: states and civilizations. •The first state/civilization level societies appear in Mesopotamia (between the Tigras and Euphrates River) around 3500 BC •Similar societies appear in the Harappan (Indus River, India), Egypt (Nile River), and Shang China (Yellow River) between 2000-3000 BC •State level societies develop in Mesoamerica and the Peru by around 1000 BC Some basic characteristics of states and civilizations •Like domestication, civilizations develop independently in several parts of the world during a similar window in time •All civilizations depend on intensive crop agriculture –Animal husbandry is important in all but Mesoamerican civilization •All civilizations tend to develop around abundant, continuous water sources in arid or semi-arid environments. –Irrigation systems are often an important factor in cultivation Theories about the rise of civilization during the 19 th and early 20 th century tended to emphasize “advancement”, accumulation of knowledge, civility •Some “evolutionary” schemes were based on technological advancement –e.g., Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age •Others were based on advancements in social structure and civil institutions –e.g., Savagery, Barbarism, Civilization –Hunting, pastoralism, Asiatic, Greco-Roman, Feudal, Capitalist (John Stuart Mill) •All were based on the notion of Progressivism . There are generally four kinds of archaeological evidence that signal the development of social complexity and state level societies 1) Monumental architecture 2) Differences in size of residences 3) Differences in the amount and kinds of material placed in graves as offerings 4) Development of settlement hierarchies –Regional capitals with dependent settlements in the hinterlands Most modern theory about socio-cultural evolution are based on developments in social complexity a term which is held to be “value-free” Complexity generally refers to two kinds of organization and differentiation:
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1) Functional differentiation 2) Wealth/Status differentiation Functional differentiation •The degree to which different people or groups specialize in particular productive, administrative/political, or religious roles •The division of labor into many different roles or “jobs” involving subsistence, crafts production, manufacturing –Division of labor can increase the efficiency of production •The degree to which there is a "chain of command" or decision making hierarchy: centralization Example: most hunter-gatherer societies are considered less "complex" in the sense that every person is usually engaged in the same range of subsistence activities (there is, of course, sexual division of labor) •Contrast with state level societies, in which there are many, different kinds of economic, and political roles Wealth/Status differentiation
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