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FINAL EXAM PART 1-3 - Part 1 Literature Review Through...

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Part 1: Literature Review Through Educational and Psychological Measurement: Short-term predictive validity of demographic, affective, personal and cognitive variables in relation to two criterion measures of cheating behaviors, researchers David Antion and William Michael conduct a study in order to analyze cheating. By taking a look at both situational and subject factors, the study was focused on students in regards to their cheating behavior on a final multiple-choice exam in a psychology course. The study consisted of one hundred and forty eight college kids, sixty four of which were males, and eighty-four of which were females. These students were enrolled in five first- year psychology classes at a two-year suburban community college in Los Angeles. The average age of the students was twenty-one, with the youngest student being seventeen and the oldest being forty-three (Antion & Michael 1983). Fifty two of the students were enrolled in non- transfer credit classes and ninety six students were enrolled in transfer credit classes. This is an important factor to look at because people in non-transfer credit classes may not be interested in continuing to a higher education beyond the community college. The study was conducted over a three week period in the latter half of the spring semester of June in 1982. This study was held because an increase was seen in cheating among college-bound students. In order to determine the amount of cheating of these students, twenty different variables were observed. These variables consisted of five demographic variables, eight affective constructs, two personal variables, three cognitive variables and two criterion measures. After observing all of these variables, Antion and Michael were able to draw conclusions about these students. Through the research, it was observed that there is no evidence that a particular character or personality trait contributes or explains cheating; yet cheating is done on a situational basis. It
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was found that there is a significant valid relationship that cheating would only occur under specific situations, such as high and low risk (Leming, 1980), knowledge of failure, knowledge of peer performance, and the amount of surveillance (Bushway and Nash, 1977). A negative moderate relationship was found in a cognitive variable of interest in the relation of a student’s actual score. The actual score evolved to be the most valid predictor of cheating. It provided
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