CHAPTER1-3 - Effects of Social Media on the Self-Esteem of...

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Effects of Social Media on the Self-Esteem of Selected Female Third Year College Students of San Beda College An Undergraduate Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Psychology College of Arts and Sciences San Beda College In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Psychology By: Foronda, Elaine Louise Gelito, Kaila Marie Leonador, Anjaelou Blesz Santos, Ma. Porscha Audrey 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Theoretical Framework Social media have been widely accepted because of its beneficial advantages to the everyday lives of every individuals. One advantage of this is that people are now more open to expressing themselves. Second, it gives people more information about the trending topic hassle-free. Third, it promotes a more effective communication to people who are distant with each other. According to a psychologist named Alfred Adler, social influence plays an important role to an individual to become motivated and to strive for success (Feist & Feist, 2013). But over a decade ago, it has been thought to promote negative psychosocial well-being (Gonzales & Hancock, 2011). Social media sites are designed to share information about the self with others, including likes/dislikes, hobbies, and personal musings via ‘‘wall posts,’’ and ‘‘status updates.’’ One famous social media is Facebook. It has been believed that Facebook (FB) can enhance the “social self-esteem” of individuals, measured as perceptions of one’s physical appearance, close relationships, and romantic appeal, especially when users received positive feedback from Facebook friends. According to Maslow’s theory, it is important for an individual to sustain his or her needs to feel love, be loved and the sense of belonging (Feist & Feist, 2013). Also, individuals with low self-esteem may see particularly positive benefits from the social opportunities provided by Facebook (Gonzales & Hancock, 2011). According to Objective Self Awareness (OSA) theory, humans experience the self as both objective and subjective. Conscious attention is bidirectional – one can focus either on noticeable aspects of the self (objective self- awareness) or noticeable aspects of the environment (subjective self-awareness) (Vallacher, 1978). For example, the self as subject is found in daily experiences of life (e.g., waiting for the taxi to arrive, eating dinner, watching TV). In those experiences the self is an active participant in life and is not self- conscious. However, people become the ‘‘object of [their] own consciousness’’ when they focus attention on the self, which can have both positive and negative effects. People are prone to self-evaluation based on broader social standards and norms (Duval & Wicklund, 1972). This usually results in a greater sense
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