SA midterm - You will be expected to know something about...

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Ÿ You will be expected to know something about each of the following: Ÿ DATES: Ÿ 1652: 1 st Dutch arrive with east India company at Cape down Ÿ 1835: great trek begins, Dutch move farther into the interior for their own independence, called Voortrekkers Ÿ 1869: Diamonds discovered near Kimberley Ÿ 1872: Cape Colony (Current south Africa) is given right to self-govern, pass law introduced to control African labor in mines Ÿ 1899-1902: second Anglo Boer war over the lack of voting rights for the 60,000 British in Dutch lands, Boers used guerilla tactics, but Boers were forced to acknowledge British sovereignty Ÿ 1910: union of South Africa created, given Dominion status by British Ÿ 1912: SANNC (South Africa Native National Congress) formed to protest racial discrimination Ÿ 1913: Natives Land Act Passed à restricted land ownership to blacks to 7% of the nation, this continued until 1990 Ÿ 1914: Martial law declared after army factions refused to fight Germans, national party formed by JBM Hertzog Ÿ 1948: National party wins elections, Smuts defeated, Apartheid era starts through legal discrimination, HNP is renamed National party Ÿ 1950: Group areas act separates racial groups, Suppression of Communism act makes all other parties “communist” and makes anyone a member face 10 years in prison, population registration act, immorality act, group areas act also passed Ÿ 1960: Unlawful Organizations act bans organizations deemed “threatening” to the government, Sharpeville Massacre happens: 69 killed, ANC moves toward more violent means, ANC banned Ÿ 1969: Steve Biko forms SASO, COSAS (Congress of South African Students) formed and over 1,000,000 join before 1985. BOSS (bureau of State security) formed. Sobukwe released from prison, but unable to leave country because of passport ban Ÿ 1976: Internal Security Act passes, Soweto uprising occurs against Bantu education, police kill over 600 by the end of the year, Transkei become 1 st “independent” Bantustand Ÿ 1979: Black trade unions legalized and helped resistance movements , Industrial Coviliation Amendment Act, Vlakplaas established Ÿ 1984: New constitution formed, there was so much resistance that the next year a state of emergency was declared, coloreds and Indians given parliamentary representation, international businesses and banks begin divesting from south Africa. Bishop Desmond Tutu wins nobel prize Ÿ 1990: State of emergency ends, Klerk elected president, Anti-Apartheid groups allowed, violence between blacks increases dramatically, Mandela released, Namibia becomes its own state, Apartheid begins to be dismantled, Negations between the government and ANC begin Ÿ 1994: free and fair elections come about, Mandela and ANC become dominant party, Mandela becomes president, failure of AWB invasion of Bophuthatswana
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Ÿ PEOPLE: Ÿ Es'kia Mphahlele: 1919-today, is a South African writer and academic. Mphahlele's first book of short stories, Man Must Live, was published in 1947. Banned from teaching by the apartheid government in 1951, During the 1950s Mphahlele became increasingly politicised, and joined the African National Congress in 1955. In 1957,
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