Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - In 1819, Texas was ceded to...

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In 1819, Texas was ceded to Spain by the United States as part of a purchase agreement for Florida. Shortly thereafter, Mexico gained its independence from Spain, leaving Texas as a part of Mexico. The United States attempted, unsuccessfully, to purchase Texas from Mexico, but the settlement of Texas by United States immigrants resulted in the secession of Texas from Mexico, and its annexation into the United States. War erupted between the United States and Mexico over Texas, and the United States prevailed. On February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, ending the Mexican American War (reader, 1). The treaty laid out the peaceful terms of the agreement, new borders and dividing lines between the two countries, and guaranteed the evacuation of Mexico by U.S. forces. The treaty also addressed numerous other issues such as citizenship and protection for Mexicans living in what was now United States territory. Although in the treaty, the United States was relatively generous to Mexico, the Mexican government, and Mexicans living in newly acquired United States territory, the treaty had a broad spectrum of effects on the Mexicans who chose to remain in the United States; many of these effects were negative. Technically, the treaty guaranteed the preservation of the Mexican land, religion, language, culture, and lifestyle in the newly acquired territory, and guaranteed that Mexicans living in the United States, whether or not they chose to become citizens, would be treated as equals. However, these benefits were neither governmentally nor socially enforced. Instead, in most cases and most aspects of social, political, and economic life, ethnic Mexicans in Southwestern United states were treated as inferiors, and incurred minimal gains from the well-meaning promises of the U.S government at the time of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Although most of the effects of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo affected those Mexicans living in the Southwest negatively, the treaty benefited them in a few ways, the greatest in which
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was the choice of citizenship and the technical guarantee of American citizenship rights, protection, and equality. In Article VIII, the treaty states “Mexicans now established in territories previously belonging to Mexico…shall be free to continue where they now reside, or to remove at any time to the Mexican Republic. ..” The treaty goes on to state “Those who shall prefer to remain in the said territories may either retain the title and rights of Mexican citizens, or acquire those of citizens of the United States. But they shall be under the obligation to make their election within one year…and those who shall remain…without having declared their intention to retain the character of Mexicans, shall be considered to have elected to become citizens of the United States” (Treaty). In this article, the treaty stated that Mexicans who did not wish to become American citizens could remain in the southwest and maintain their lifestyle,
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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - In 1819, Texas was ceded to...

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