British Mandate and Zionist Movement

British Mandate and Zionist Movement - Roach 1 The British...

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Roach 1 The British Mandate and its Effects on Arab-Israeli Relations in the Middle East Alea Roach A05760824 12.3.2005
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Roach 2 Throughout the Arab-Israeli conflict, outside political powers have influenced the shape and general direction of the conflict. From 1922 until 1948, the political climate in this period, known as the British Mandate, was shaped by numerous documents, figureheads, and promises put forth by the British to both the Jews/Israelis and the Palestinians/Arabs. During these 26 years of rule, the British mandate created a sense of political stability through regulations and institutions created to keep peace between the two sides. However, at the same time, through mutually exclusive promises, guarantees, and implied concessions to both sides, the mandate exacerbated the political controversy between the two sides, and set the stage for further and more intense political conflict between the Zionists and the Arab extremists. Prior to the British Mandate of Palestine, the territory, which later became known as Palestine, belonged to the Ottoman Empire. After World War I and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations, formed out of the Versailles Peace Conference, entrusted this territory to the British (wikipedia.org). However, prior to the end of WWI and the ratification of the mandate by the League of Nations, the British had already begun making promises to both the Zionists and the Arabs, creating tension in the interactions between all three parties. During 1915 and 1916, the British High Commissioner, Sir Henry McMahon, communicated through letters to the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein ibn Ali (wikipedia.org). These letters discussed the provisions for a revolt by the Arabs against the Turks (in order to help the British) in exchange for Arab independence, and became extremely important in the British relationship with the Arabs of Palestine. The most important of these letters was the second, written to Sherif Hussein by Henry McMahon on October 24, 1915. The letter stated, “That subject to the modifications stated above, Great Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all the regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca” (wikipedia.org). From this letter, the Arabs came to understand that with a few
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Roach 3 territorial exceptions stated in the letter, the British had every intent to grant Arab independence to this territory, which the Arabs thought included the land of Palestine. However, later, confusion arose about whether or not Palestine was to be included in this Arab state. Although this correspondence was not an official or legally binding contract between the British and the Arabs, the Arabs assumed that the British would uphold their promise, and in 1916, the Arabs revolted against the Turks with the help of the British, specifically colonel T.E. Lawrence, also known as Lawrence of Arabia (Bickerton and Klausner 38). At approximately the same time, the British were secretly corresponding with the French
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2008 for the course POLI SCI 138D taught by Professor Jewishguy during the Winter '06 term at UCSD.

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British Mandate and Zionist Movement - Roach 1 The British...

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