153A_Lec12

153A_Lec12 - 1 Carbohydrates & Lipids Jan. 28,...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Carbohydrates & Lipids Jan. 28, 2008 2 Todays Overview Finish carbohydrates Storage Polysaccharides Glycosaminoglycans Peptidoglycan Lipids 3 Storage Polysaccharides Starch Plant synthesized Food reserve Deposited in plant cell cytoplasm as insoluble granules Main carb source in human diet -amylose, amylopectin Glycogen Animal synthesized More branched than starch Present in all cells but most prevalent in skeletal muscle and liver 4 Amylose Several thousand units Linear polymer of D-glucose, 1-->4 linkage Isomer of cellulose L-handed helix conformation 5 Amylopectin Branched every 24 to 30 molecules in general May contain up to 10 6 Glc residues One of the largest biomolecules found in nature 6 -Amylose 7 Amylopectin. 8 Photomicrograph showing the glycogen granules ( pink ) in the cytoplasm of a liver cell 1 structure resembles amylopectin Branched every 8 to 12 glucose residues Degraded in cell by glycogen phosphorylase to make glucose-1- phosphate 9 Why bother with polysaccharides? Polysaccharides have a lower osmotic pressure compared to monomers Osmotic pressure is proportional to the number of solute molecules in a given volume 10 Sugar Derivatives Deoxy sugars A monosaccharide in which an OH group is replaced by H Beta-D-2-deoxyribose Amino sugar One or more OH groups are replaced by an often acetylated amino group D-glucosamine, D-galactosamine Sugar alcohols Reduced aldoses and ketoses Ribitol, glycerol, sorbitol 11 Deoxy Sugar Derivatives Nucelotide: PHOSPHATE-SUGAR-BASE The 3'-OH of one nucleotide is linked to the 5'-phosphate of the next nucleotide. 12...
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153A_Lec12 - 1 Carbohydrates & Lipids Jan. 28,...

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