Q and A from Final Review

Q and A from Final Review - M otor A motor unit consists of...

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Unformatted text preview: M otor A motor unit consists of____________________. A. one muscle fiber and all the motor neur ons that inner vate it B. one motor neur on and all the muscle fiber s it inner vates T he membr ane of a muscle cell fiber is excitable (i.e., it can gener ate action potentials). M otor A motor unit consists of____________________. A. one muscle fiber and all the motor neur ons that inner vate it B. one motor neur on and all the muscle fiber s it inner vates T he membr ane of a muscle cell fiber is excitable (i.e., it can gener ate action potentials). M otor After an action potential r eaches the neur omuscular junction and the action potential is conducted dow n the T tubules, calcium causes ___________ and ___________ to slide along each other incr easing the over lap betw een them. a. Actin filaments (thin)/ M yosin filaments (thick ) b. Z lines/ M bands c. F ascicles/M otor units d. T r opomyosin/T r oponin M otor After an action potential r eaches the neur omuscular junction and the action potential is conducted dow n the T tubules, calcium causes ___________ and ___________ to slide along each other incr easing the over lap betw een them. a. Actin filaments (thin)/ M yosin filaments (thick ) b. Z lines/ M bands c. F ascicles/M otor units d. T r opomyosin/T r oponin M otor T he ___________ contr ols muscle length. ____________ motor neur ons pr ovide the contr ol signal for setting muscle length. A. muscle spindle, Alpha B. muscle spindle, Gamma C. sar coplasmic r eticulum, Alpha D . sar coplasmic r eticulum, Gamma M otor T he ___________ contr ols muscle length. ____________ motor neur ons pr ovide the contr ol signal for setting muscle length. A. muscle spindle, Alpha B. muscle spindle, Gamma C. sar coplasmic r eticulum, Alpha D . sar coplasmic r eticulum, Gamma M otor Gamma motor neur ons adjust the tension of the _____________ muscle fiber s (a component of muscle spindles) thus, setting the length at w hich the muscle spindle gives no er r or signal. A. Extr afusal B. I ntr afusal Activity in ________-loop systems is pr epr ogr ammed, r apid and ballistic (e.g., thr ow ing a baseball or playing the piano). A. Open B. Closed M otor Gamma motor neur ons adjust the tension of the _____________ muscle fiber s (a component of muscle spindles) thus, setting the length at w hich the muscle spindle gives no er r or signal. A. Extr afusal B. I ntr afusal Activity in ________-loop systems is pr epr ogr ammed, r apid and ballistic (e.g., thr ow ing a baseball or playing the piano). A. Open B. Closed M otor Anatomically, the _________ is/ar e especially impor tant in the gener ation of simple and fine movements inf luenced by memor ies. A. cer ebellum B. basil ganglia T he activity of the ________ cor r elates w ith that of the ___________. A. Cer ebellum, Supplementar y motor cor tex B. Cer ebellum, Pr imar y motor cor tex C. Basil Ganglia, Supplementar y motor cor tex M otor Anatomically, the _________ is/ar e especially impor tant in the gener ation of simple and fine movements inf luenced by memor ies. A. cer ebellum B. basil ganglia T he activity of the ________ cor r elates w ith that of the ___________. A. Cer ebellum, Supplementar y motor cor tex B. Cer ebellum, Pr imar y motor cor tex C. Basil Ganglia, Supplementar y motor cor tex M otor Which of the follow ing is par t of an extr apyr midal motor system. A. cer ebellum B. basil ganglia C. pr imar y motor cor tex D . amygdala E. hippocampus M otor Which of the follow ing is par t of an extr apyr midal motor system. A. cer ebellum B. basil ganglia C. pr imar y motor cor tex D . amygdala E. hippocampus M otor I n Par k inson's disease the degener ation of dopaminer gic neur ons in the substantia nigr a cause pr oblems of motor function. Among these pr oblems is _____________ but not _____________. a. intention tr emor / r esting tr emor b. r esting tr emor / intention tr emor c. chor ea/ ataxia d. ataxia/chor ea M otor I n Par k inson's disease the degener ation of dopaminer gic neur ons in the substantia nigr a cause pr oblems of motor function. Among these pr oblems is _____________ but not _____________. a. intention tr emor / r esting tr emor b. r esting tr emor / intention tr emor c. chor ea/ ataxia d. ataxia/chor ea M otor M atch the per ipher al disor der s of mot or function w ith its sympt oms or causes. M uscular dystr ophy / D uchenne's Auto-antibodies against ACh r eceptor s loss of r eflexes due to w idespr ead spinal cor d damage w asting aw ay of muscles M yastheni a gr avi s Amyotr ophic later al scler osis / L ou Gehr ig's disease F laccid par alysi s M otor neur on death Spastic par alysis simple sever ing of spinal cor d -- loss of descending modulator y influences M otor M atch the centr al disor der s of mot or function w ith its symptoms or causes. degener ation of apr axia (I deati onal or I deomotor ) dopaminer gic cells in the substantia nigr a damage to cer ebellum Par k inson's D isease H untington's D isease intention tr emor s, ataxia and/or loss of vestibular ocular r eflex spastic par alysis and/or loss of fi ne motor contr ol str ok es outside of M1 destr uction of basal ganglia str ok es of M1 H omeostasis What's one of the dr aw back s of using negative feedback cir cuits (closedloop systems) to maintain a "set point"? A. B. C. inaccur ate er r or cor r ection slow er r or cor r ection limited use (can only be applied to a few systems) D . insufficient H omeostasis What's one of the dr aw back s of using negative feedback cir cuits (closedloop systems) to maintain a "set point"? A. B. C. inaccur ate er r or cor r ection slow er r or cor r ection limited use (can only be applied to a few systems) D . insufficient H omeostasis Which of the follow ing electr olytes (ions) ar e you mor e likely to have an imbalance? A. B. C. D. E. Ca++ ClNa+ K+ L i+ H omeostasis Which of the follow ing electr olytes (ions) ar e you mor e likely to have an imbalance? A. B. C. D. E. Ca++ ClNa+ K+ L i+ H omeostasis After giving blood, your bar or eceptor s w ill detect a fluid imbalance and you w ill exper ience ____________ thir st. I n addition to AD H r elease, the ________________ w ill be activated. A. hyper osmotic, cir cumventr icular or gans B. hyper osmotic, r enin-angiotensin system C. hypovolemic, cir cumventr icular or gans D . hypovolemic, r enin-angiotensin system H omeostasis After giving blood, your bar or eceptor s w ill detect a fluid imbalance and you w ill exper ience ____________ thir st. I n addition to AD H r elease, the ________________ w ill be activated. A. hyper osmotic, cir cumventr icular or gans B. hyper osmotic, r enin-angiotensin system C. hypovolemic, cir cumventr icular or gans D . hypovolemic, r enin-angiotensin system H omeostasis T his is w hy babies and small animals lose heat ver y r apidly. a. T hey ar e ectother mic b. T hey have incomplete thyr oid hor mone metabolism c. T hey have higher volume to sur face r atios d. T hey have higher sur face to volume r atios H omeostasis T his is w hy babies and small animals lose heat ver y r apidly. a. T hey ar e ectother mic b. T hey have incomplete thyr oid hor mone metabolism c. T hey have higher volume to sur face r atios d. T hey have higher sur face to volume r atios H omeostasis T he ar cuate nucleus may be the ar ea in the hypothalamus r esponsible for "appetite contr ol." T he tw o ar eas also w ithin the hypothalamus that r eceive input fr om the ar cuate nucleus ar e the ______________ (that w hen lesioned w ill pr oduce a loss of appetite) and the ________________ (that w hen lesioned w ill cause a loss of feeling satiated). a. b. c. d. F G (F usifor m Gyr us)/ RAS (Reticular Acitvating System) CP (Chor iod Plexus)/ L V (L ater al Ventr icles) L C (L eptin Center )/ CART -POM neur ons L H (L ater al H ypothalamus)/ VM H (Ventr o-M edial H ypothalamus) H omeostasis T he ar cuate nucleus may be the ar ea in the hypothalamus r esponsible for "appetite contr ol." T he tw o ar eas also w ithin the hypothalamus that r eceive input fr om the ar cuate nucleus ar e the ______________ (that w hen lesioned w ill pr oduce a loss of appetite) and the ________________ (that w hen lesioned w ill cause a loss of feeling satiated). a. b. c. d. F G (F usifor m Gyr us)/ RAS (Reticular Acitvating System) CP (Chor iod Plexus)/ L V (L ater al Ventr icles) L C (L eptin Center )/ CART -POM neur ons L H (L ater al H ypothalamus)/ VM H (Ventr o-M edial H ypothalamus) H omeostasis Both physiological and behavior al ther mor egulation ar e or chestr ated by the _________. Ectother ms (lik e lizar ds) ar e capable of ther mor egulation (T r ue or F alse). A. B. C. D. hypothalamus, hypothalamus, pituitar y, pituitar y, T r ue F alse T r ue F alse H omeostasis Both physiological and behavior al ther mor egulation ar e or chestr ated by the _________. Ectother ms (lik e lizar ds) ar e capable of ther mor egulation (T r ue or F alse). A. B. C. D. hypothalamus, hypothalamus, pituitar y, pituitar y, T(they'r e capable of r ue al behavior ther mor egulation) F alse T r ue F alse Sex Sexual dimor phism is not just in exter ior physical char acter istics, ther e has been sexual dimor phism found in the br ain. T hese ar e the tw o CN S ar eas mentioned in class: a. w olfer ian ducts and muller ian ducts b. fusifor m gyr i and r eticular for mation c. hypothalamic nuclei and spinal cor d d. none of the above Sex Sexual dimor phism is not just in exter ior physical char acter istics, ther e has been sexual dimor phism found in the br ain. T hese ar e the tw o CN S ar eas mentioned in class: a. w olfer ian ducts and muller ian ducts b. fusifor m gyr i and r eticular for mation c. hypothalamic nuclei and spinal cor d d. none of the above Sex Animals that ____________ find a sexua l r epr oduction advantageous. A. B. C. ar e r elatively immobile or spar se live in small number s live in unchanging envir onments Sex Animals that ____________ find a sexua l r epr oduction advantageous. A. B. C. ar e r elatively immobile or spar se live in small number s live in unchanging envir onments Sex T estoster one is r equir ed to __________ for the expr ession of male typical mating behavior . A. or ganize the ner vous system B. activate the ner vous system C. both or ganize and activate the ner vous system Sex T estoster one is r equir ed to __________ for the expr ession of male typical mating behavior . A. or ganize the ner vous system B. activate the ner vous system C. both or ganize and activate the ner vous system Sleep and Rhythms M ar ine mammals ar e pr etty amazing and sleep one hemispher e at a time, show ing slow w ave sleep (SWS). What if we could tr ain humans to do the same?! What is most likely to happen if the ar my implemented this str ategy, never letting soldier s sleep "nor mally" as we think of it? 1. Soldier s w ill become super humans, w ith at least one hemispher e aw ake at all times! 2. One hemispher e would alw ays need to sleep, so soldier s could never be fully Sleep and Rhythms M ar ine mammals ar e pr etty amazing and sleep one hemispher e at a time, show ing slow w ave sleep (SWS). What if we could tr ain humans to do the same?! What is most likely to happen if the ar my implemented this str ategy, never letting soldier s sleep "nor mally" as we think of it? 1. Soldier s w ill become super humans, w ith at least one hemispher e aw ake at all times! 2. One hemispher e would alw ays need to sleep, so soldier s could never be fully Sleep and Rhythms Entr ainment is defined as the pr ocess of synchr onizing a biological r hythm to an envir onmental stimulus. T he ____________ nucleus of the hypothalamus, w hich r eceives light infor mation fr om the eyes, w as called the "site of entr ainment" by D r. Schein in lectur e. a. L ater al hypothalamus b. Ar cuate nucleus c. R ed nucleus Sleep and Rhythms Entr ainment is defined as the pr ocess of synchr onizing a biological r hythm to an envir onmental stimulus. T he ____________ nucleus of the hypothalamus, w hich r eceives light infor mation fr om the eyes, w as called the "site of entr ainment" by D r. Schein in lectur e. a. L ater al hypothalamus b. Ar cuate nucleus c. R ed nucleus Sleep and Rhythms Can some animals use light for the entr ainment of their cir cadian r hythms after : i) they lose both eyes? (Yes or No) ii) both of their optic tr acts ar e cut? (Yes or No) Over the cour se of a full night of sleep, one cycles thr ough the differ ent sleep stages numer ous times. I n later cycles, deep sleep (stages 3 & 4) occur s_______. Sleep and Rhythms Can some animals use light for the entr ainment of their cir cadian r hythms after : i) they lose both eyes? ( Yes or No) ii) both of their optic tr acts ar e cut? ( Yes or No) Over the cour se of a full night of sleep, one cycles thr ough the differ ent sleep stages numer ous times. I n later cycles, deep sleep (stages 3 & 4) occur s_______. Sleep and Rhythms A mouse w ithout photor eceptor s can nonetheless entr ain its cir cadian r hythms to light (T r ue OR False). A tr ansplant of the supr achiasmatic nucleus (SCN ) into an animal w hose ow n SCN ar e lesioned can not only r estor e cir cadian r hythms in the r ecipient, but the r hythm is of the same per iod as that of the Sleep and Rhythms A mouse w ithout photor eceptor s can nonetheless entr ain its cir cadian r hythms to light ( T r ue OR False). A tr ansplant of the supr achiasmatic nucleus (SCN ) into an animal w hose ow n SCN ar e lesioned can not only r estor e cir cadian r hythms in the r ecipient, but the r hythm is of the same per iod as that of the Sleep and Rhythms M atch the sleep phenomena w ith its r elated br ain system. br ainstem tr igger s REM sleep / r esponsible for causing atonia dur ing REM contr ols sw itching among the contr ol systems (a.k .a. the RAC ) has been called the "w ak ing center " w hen stimulated w ill induce slow w ave sleep (SWS) ponti ne for ebr ain hypothalami c Psychopathology What may be the biological basis of Schizophr enia? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D evelopmental pr oblems Neur ochemical pr oblems Genetics All of the above None of the above Psychopathology What may be the biological basis of Schizophr enia? 1. D evelopmental pr oblems (neur ogenesis, migr ation, synaptogenesis). 2. Neur ochemical pr oblems (too much/too little neur otr ansmitter s or r eceptor stimulation) 3. Genetics (50% concor dance r ate among monozygotic tw ins) 1. All of the above In Schizophrenia, the symptoms can be broadly classified into two types. Positive symptoms include: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought, bizarre behaviors. Negative symptoms include: social withdrawal, flat affect, anhedonia, poor motivation/focus, alogia, catatonia. The symptoms are classified as such because ___________. a. the positive symptoms indicate a better disease outcome than negative symptoms. b. the negative symptoms are much more severe/detrimental to functioning than the positive ones. c. the drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia cause the negative symptoms. d. the positive symptoms are additive behaviors (behaviors that don't normally occur) whereas negative symptoms are more like losses or subtraction from normal behaviors. Psychopathology In Schizophrenia, the symptoms can be broadly classified into two types. Positive symptoms include: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought, bizarre behaviors. Negative symptoms include: social withdrawal, flat affect, anhedonia, poor motivation/focus, alogia, catatonia. The symptoms are classified as such because ___________. a. the positive symptoms indicate a better disease outcome than negative symptoms. b. the negative symptoms are much more severe/detrimental to functioning than the positive ones. c. the drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia cause the negative symptoms. d. the positive symptoms are additive behaviors (behaviors that don't normally occur) whereas negative symptoms are more like losses or subtraction from normal behaviors. Psychopathology Psychopathology Patients w ho ar e diagnosed w ith bipolar disor der show behavior s associated w ith both depr ession and _________. T r eatment using the dr ug _________is ver y effective but this dr ug's ther apeutic r ange is small. a. psychosis/ SSRI s b. obsessive-compulsive behavior s/ tr icyclics Psychopathology Patients w ho ar e diagnosed w ith bipolar disor der show behavior s associated w ith both depr ession and _________. T r eatment using the dr ug _________is ver y effective but this dr ug's ther apeutic r ange is small. a. psychosis/ SSRI s b. obsessive-compulsive behavior s/ tr icyclics Psychopathology Which of the follow ing hypotheses have been put for th to explain the biological basis of schizophr enia. 1. U nder stimulation of the D 2 dopamine r eceptor 2. U nder stimulation of the N M D A glutamate r eceptor 3. Cellular disor ganization of the pyr amidal cells of the hippocampus 4. I ncr eased blood flow to the fr ontal Psychopathology Which of the follow ing hypotheses have been put for th to explain the biological basis of schizophr enia. 1. U nder stimulation of the D 2 dopamine r eceptor (it's overstimulation of D2R) 1. U nder stimulation of the N M D A glutamate r eceptor 2. Cellular disor ganization of the pyr amidal cells of the hippocampus 1. I ncr eased blood flow to the fr ontal Psychopathology T he str ongest cr iticism of the monoamine hypothesis of depr ession is that ___________. A. it ignor es genetic causes of the disor der B. tr eatment w ith dr ugs tak e w eek s to amelior ate symptoms but minuets to affect neur otr ansmitter levels C. it's untestable D . no evidence Can the same cr iticism be applied to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophr enia? ( Yes Psychopathology T he str ongest cr iticism of the monoamine hypothesis of depr ession is that ___________. A. it ignor es genetic causes of the disor der B. tr eatment w ith dr ugs tak e w eek s to amelior ate symptoms but minuets to affect neur otr ansmitter levels C. it's untestable D . no evidence Can the same cr iticism be applied to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophr enia? ( Yes L ear ning and M emor y I n or der to lear n and r emember declar ative (explicit) infor mation, ther e ar e thr ee things that must occur . T hese ar e: a. habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization b. sk ill lear ning, pr iming, and conditioning c. encoding, consolidation, r etr ieval L ear ning and M emor y I n or der to lear n and r emember declar ative (explicit) infor mation, ther e ar e thr ee things that must occur . T hese ar e: a. habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization b. sk ill lear ning, pr iming, and conditioning c. encoding, consolidation, r etr ieval L ear ning and M emor y _________ r eceptor s ar e impor tant for the esta bl i shment ( i nducti on ) of L T P (long ter m potentiation) in the CA1 r egion of the hippocampus, but ar e not necessar y after a long ter m memor y has been established. a. AM PA b. Glutamate c. N M D A d. GABA L ear ning and M emor y _________ r eceptor s ar e impor tant for the esta bl i shment ( i nducti on ) of L T P (long ter m potentiation) in the CA1 r egion of the hippocampus, but ar e not necessar y after a long ter m memor y has been established. a. AM PA b. Glutamate c. N M D A d. GABA L ear ning and M emor y Can someone incur a br ain lesion that leaves semantic memor y mor e or less intact w hile impair ing episodic memor y? ( Yes or N o ) L ear ning and M emor y Can someone incur a br ain lesion that leaves semantic memor y mor e or less intact w hile impair ing episodic memor y? ( Yes or N o ) e.g., patient K.C. L ear ning and M emor y F or patients H .M . and N .A., w hich of the follow ing memor ies could they acquir e after their accident/sur ger y? A. how to balance a pick le on their noses B. cr me br le is delicious C. don't touch the shinny r ed button or you'll get tazed br o D . that time you had the special L ear ning and M emor y F or patients H .M . and N .A., w hich of the follow ing memor ies could they acquir e after their accident/sur ger y? (Sk ill) (note that i consider this A. how to balance a pick be a "fact" their le on i.e., to semantic) noses B. cr me br le isconditioning) (Classical delicious C. don't touch the shinny r ed button or you'll get tazed br o (Episodi c) D . that time you had the special L ear ning and M emor y H .M had his medial tempor al lobes r emoved to tr eat epilepsy, r esulting in _________ amnesia. T his syndr ome is char acter ized by loss of (old/new ) _________ memor y, but intact ________ memor y. 1. Retr ogr ade, old declar ative, nondeclar ative 2. Retr ogr ade, old non-declar ative, declar ative 3. Retr ogr ade, new declar ative, nondeclar ative L ear ning and M emor y H .M had his medial tempor al lobes r emoved to tr eat epilepsy, r esulting in _________ amnesia. T his syndr ome is char acter ized by loss of (old/new ) _________ memor y, but intact ________ memor y. 1. Retr ogr ade, old declar ative, nondeclar ative 2. Retr ogr ade, old non-declar ative, declar ative 3. Retr ogr ade, new declar ative, nondeclar ative L ear ning and M emor y M atch the memor y w ith ar ea w her ein a lesion would cause impair ment Spatial location r ecognition memor y Object r ecognition memor y Response r ecognition memor y Extr astr iate visual cor tex Pr efr ontal Cor tex H ippocampus Wor k ing memor y Caudate N ucleus (str iatum/basal ganglia) Cognitive N eur oscience A split-br ain patient has had his cor pus callosum sur gically cut. I f you pr esent an item to this patient's left visual field, he w ill be able to identify it _________, but w ill not be able to identify it _________. 1. With his left hand, ver bally 2. With his r ight hand, ver bally 3. With his left hand, w ith his r ight Cognitive N eur oscience A split-br ain patient has had his cor pus callosum sur gically cut. I f you pr esent an item to this patient's left visual field, he w ill be able to identify it _________, but w ill not be able to identify it _________. 1. With his left hand, ver bally 1. With his r ight hand, ver bally 2. With his left hand, w ith his r ight ...
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