feb20syntax - Today How Languages Differ Embedded Sentences...

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Today How Languages Differ Embedded Sentences FIRST EXAM: Monday, Feb. 25. Exam will be open book and similar to homework problems.
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English Phrase Structure Rules 1) S => NP VP 2) NP => (Det) (Adj) N (PP) 3) VP => V (NP) (Adverb) (PP) 4) PP => P NP
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These Phrase Structure Rules tell us…
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1. English word order: SVO 1) S => NP VP 3) VP => V (NP) (Adverb) (PP) These rules together tell us English has SVO word order (subject-verb-object)
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2. Ambiguity PP can attach either to NP :
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A sentence like Bruce hit the dog with the fish is ambiguous (2 meanings) because it has two possible structures.
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3. Recursion (you can make an infinite number of sentences) NP => (Det) (Adj) N ( PP ) PP => P NP The microbes on the tick on the dog from the farm in the woods on the road to the town…
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Do all human languages have the same structure? Every language has some way to express any meaning . Every language has certain lexical categories (N, V, Adj). Every language has phrases (NP, PP, etc.). Every language has recursion (can make infinitely many sentences).
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BUT Languages may differ in word order.
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S V O S O V English Hindi French Japanese
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These four languages have the subject first, so… English, French, Hindi, Japanese have S => NP VP
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feb20syntax - Today How Languages Differ Embedded Sentences...

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