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feb6Morphology - Today 1 More on English word formation 2...

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Today 1. More on English word formation 2. Morphology of other languages: How different can languages be?
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Review English speakers have learned a grammar (rules for associating meaning and sound). This grammar is creative—it allows you to form new words and sentences.
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Every language has 1) Morphemes: free morphemes and affixes (prefixes, suffixes), and 2) Rules for combining morphemes. These rules allow you to create and understand new words ( krumpers , LOLing, slayage ).
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Word Formation Rules Tell You The part of speech an affix (prefix or suffix) can attach to: -er1 attaches to a verb The part of speech of the resulting word: krump er is a noun meaning ‘someone who krumps’
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Your grammar tells you Some words are ungrammatical * read-re is ungrammatical: why? * re-sky is ungrammatical: why?
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Terminology: Grammatical Categories Noun : names a person, place, object, entity, quality. The ____ is interesting, ___ s are interesting . (cat, house, theory) Verb : names an action. I like to ___. (run, dance, eat)
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Adverb : Describes an action. It happened ____. (slowly, often) Adjective : Describes a noun. That’s a/an __________ thing. (ugly, interesting)
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Caution Morphology is tricky: rules are not always productive.
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1) Words can’t always be taken apart “Her hair was kempt, her clothing was shevelled, and she moved in a gainly way.” (“How I Met my Wife” by Jack Winter, The New Yorker , July 25, 1994.)
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unkempt but no kempt disshevelled but no shevelled ungainly but no gainly
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