march5,pragmatics

march5,pragmatics - Today Semantics & Pragmatics Rules...

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Today Rules of Conversation
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First: Review Question IV: The fact that Obama won Iowa surprised Hillary.
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Main (big) Sentence Main sentence active : Hillary fears that Obama will win the nomination . Main sentence passive : That Obama will win the nomination is feared by Hillary .
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Embedded (little) Sentence Embedded sentence active : Hillary fears [that Obama will win the nomination]. Embedded sentence passive : Hillary fears [that the nomination will be won by Obama] .
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Can you make BOTH sentences passive? Yes: [ [That the nomination will be won by Obama] is feared by Hillary].
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Grammar the rules for associating meaning and sound which are agreed upon by some community.
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Principle of Compositionality The meaning of a sentence depends on the meaning of the morphemes in the sentence. the way these morphemes are combined into morphological and syntactic structures.
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Contradiction That bachelor is married . This sentence is a contradiction = false by definition.
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Tautology That bachelor is unmarried . This sentence is a tautology = true by definition.
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What do we mean by ‘meaning’ ?
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Meaning = reference? Reference = that thing in the world that the morpheme names. cat =
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But not all words refer to something in the real world… Vampires hate garlic. What is the referent of vampire ?
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Aspects of Meaning Reference : what the word points to in the world. Sense : all the information associated with that word in our minds.
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Meaning is complicated The meaning of a morpheme may include information about context, speaker’s beliefs, etc.
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Meaning of determiners
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Two groups of people watched the same video of a car crash.
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Group 1 was asked: Did you see a broken headlight? Group 2 was asked: Did you see
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march5,pragmatics - Today Semantics & Pragmatics Rules...

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