Nationalism - While it can be said that nationalism became...

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While it can be said that nationalism became important during the French revolution in 1789- 1799, it was not until the late 19 th century that large empires began to be divided into smaller nation states. These consisted of ethnically homogenous or nearly ethnically homogenous populations. These new states began to differ from one another in terms of things like the dominant religions, ethnic makeup, language, institutions, history and cultures. By 1830, Catholic Belgians had gained their sovereignty and separated as a nation state from the Protestant Netherlands, Greece at the same time had also separated from the Ottoman Empire. This form of nationalism had the habit of breaking down larger political units, such as the Ottoman Empire and creating smaller, sovereign, and ethnically homogenous political organizations called nation states. At the same time, it also brought together various small communities of city-states, and principalities such as the more then 30 included in the German Republic in 1870-1871. From the end of the 19 th century, to the 21 st century nationalism has created patterns of behaviour during the earlier stages which were precedents for later date nationalism throughout Europe. The main factors for changes in types of nationalism were the concentration on ethnicity, commonality, and location, which through time changed how people perceive themselves and their identity. For nationalism, the ethnicity of the citizens within a nation-state was exceptionally important. This is because nationalists felt that common ethnicities within a sovereign state that shared a common history needed a government that would follow their desires as opposed to marginalizing them with other ethnicities. This is also known as radical nationalism. Such nationalism was a phenomenon of the 19 th century, since before then there was very little concern about the intertwining of various populations 1
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within states. It was fairly often, that the desire for homogenous states was sparked by the thoughts that as an ethnicity or a group certain parts of society were being marginalized and oppressed. This led to the view that these distinct societies could only flourish within homogenous states so that they could self-determine. At the end of the 19 th century, nationalism went through a shift in its focus, and the emphasis was on ethnicity and the blend of common descent which was the definition for a nationality. This stress on ethnicity amplified the pressure of notions about evolution of people, heredity and race. In turn, these notions led to various scientific arguments of eugenics and attempts to
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This note was uploaded on 05/17/2008 for the course HIST 1000 taught by Professor Phillips during the Spring '08 term at Carleton CA.

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Nationalism - While it can be said that nationalism became...

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