March 3 2008
lots of politically active students in 1960s and 70s
there was a rational reason why so many middle class students rallied to anti
you can see the dominant political orientation of students has changed since the
century (and during)
In the 1960s a bigger proportion of students went to universities. They were the
people that could afford to go
Now, it is pretty much the same, but the whole labour- environment has changed,
much more difficult to get jobs after university
Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union mid 1950s to 1970
Poland, east Germany, Checz, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Ukraine, were the main states of eastern Europe
Second world war to the 1990s, Europe is divided between east and west
It exemplifies the cold war, the front line of the cold war between west and east.
One of the things that we often think about, Europe during the cold war, what you
have in the west is democratic nations, consumer society, and prosperity. East is
authoritarian, The Soviet Union is dominant, relative poverty
Notion of this great divide between east and west, yet when we look at it critically
we can see that it is much more complicated then that. There were authoritarian
governments in many parts of Europe. . General Franco –Spain came in power in
30s and stayed till the 1970s. One of the longest dictators in Europe.
Salazar- Portugal till the 1970s
Greece- military dictatorship for a long time.
The whole of Western Europe, these states that were in NATO were not
Then when you look at Eastern Europe, even though the USSR, the Soviet Union
was dominant, they continued to occupy militarily in Eastern Europe following
Tito liberated Yugoslavia. Red army- did not occupy Yugoslavia. It is not a
member of the Warsaw pact. It for the most part, even though it fell within a
soviet sphere of influence it carved out its own foreign policies.
It was at the forefront of the non-aligned nations.
Austria after the war was divided into 4 segments, by 1955 soviets withdrew their
forces and it began a unified and neutral state once again.
Other countries established independence within the soviet sphere
Romania was the first to recognize Israel after 1967
When we talk about the relationship between eastern Europe and the Soviet
Union, we always have to be aware that each country established their own
These were nationalist governments, they were anxious to establish their own
national identity within the system that was dominated by the Soviet Union.
From the 1950s and 60s there were limits to how far these countries could
establish their own identity and their own road to socialism.