Art History Midterm Notes Saturday, October 13, 2007 2:38 PM ART HISTORY STUDY GUIDE fresco- Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. Used in 14th – 16th (ish) cen for wall/ceiling paintings usually in churches/chapels. "must be painted on the wall while the plaster is still fresh/wet" Enrico Scrovegni - A money - lender (which meant he was eeeevil or at least considered evil), who commissioned Giotto to paint his Arena Chapel. Usury - interest. Money is lent then paid back w/ursury = interest. Renaissance - literally "re-birth" beginning around 15th century, Italy Florence, a sudden turn from middle ages art. Focus on the classical age, but also a synthesization of the past with the present. A look away from the middle ages into a better art. Clients/patrons - people who commissioned paintings based upon their own specifications. Contracts - legally binding documents between artist and patron regarding commissioned painting. Content of contracts - materials and labor. Trend from material to labor-based. What material used and how much labor done by artist himself instead of workshop. Ultramarine – made of crushed Lapis Lazuli. Incredibly expensive: shipped from Afghanistan and used to paint in strong blues. I.E. Mary’s robes. More stable than German Blue. Shows the wealth of the patron/painting. German Blue – cheaper cousin of Ultramarine. Copper oxidizes over time and turns the painted blue into a greener tint. Reasons patrons commissioned art – commissioned art b/c "The pleasure of possession, an active piety, civic consciousness of one or another kind, self-commemoration, and perhaps self-advertisement, the rich man's necessary virtue and pleasure of reparation, a taste for pictures" 1."satisfaction about owning what is good" 2."the glory of God" 3. "the honour of the city" 4." and commemoration of myself [patron]"
5."buying such things is an outlet for the pleasure and virtue of spending money well, a pleasure greater than the admittedly substantial one of making money" Materials and skills - Originally, the contracts specified the importance of materials (due to their indication of wealth), but as time progressed to Renaissance, the focus on materials (quantitative) began to shift towards skill of illusion (qualitative). Period Eye - seeing painting in that era's perspective. i.e. Cognitive style – the artist’s recognition of the artist’s skill of gauging things (measurements, biblical sources, etc. in paintings) Fra Roberto - wrote about gesturing in early Renaissance paintings. Specified the systematic expressions and what they meant. States of Mary response to Gabriel -1. Disquiet - "she in her humility was astonished and amazed" 2. Reflection - "she cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be" 3. Inquiry "this modest, pure, chaste, maidenly lover of virginity inquired how a virgin could conceive" 4. Submission "Lowering her head…And then lifting her eyes towards heaven,
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