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Review Session 3 - Tuberculosis can go into your skull...

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Tuberculosis can go into your skull, expands and causes tissue to become infected Had TB at 500,000 y? Know the features of KNM-ER 3733 Know the features of bones, thickenings, super orbital Taurus DO NOT confuse features with bones Olduvai Hominid 13 type specimen for Homo habelis OH 62 has cranial evidence, we can see how tall it is OH 53 is S. African variant OH 24 is just a complete cranium, a little squashed 1923 Australopithecus africanus , then brun finds a different form of Australopithecus, then names it Paranthropus robustus (next to Australopithecus, but later people just dubbed it Australopithecus) Leaky finds zinjanthropus bosei , everyone recognized it’s similar to robustus, say that they are all in the same genus, all were put in Australopithecus Mojokerto Only baby homo erectus known Re-dated to 1.7 mya based on argon, we don’t know where the skull comes from, only thing found in Mojokerto. Somebody got it and took it to the museum. Dated on the assumption that the dirt that filled it in was the same date as the skull itself o Date allows people to put ancestor in China or Europe with illegitimate evidence, creates problems Sangaran One of the only skulls that has a face Dart= osteodontothoratic culture More likely that they weren’t hunters, that they were jus the remains of other animal’s dinners Afarensis originally thought to be two things, then demonstrated to be sexual dimorphism Johansen and White, afar, single species that were higly dimorphic Canine dimorphism drops out, range of gradiation is comphete Dichotomy that existed in other apes is gone Afarensis Brain size DID NOT come before bipedality Out of Africa hypothesis Alan Wilson/ Becky Klein first person to do the analysis of mitochondrial DNA o Traces ancestry back to a single pop of females in Africa around 2 mya o Computer generates the most likely cladogram, from most to least likely Generates somewhere btwn 1-5 million years, picks the most parsimonious tree (easiest to explain, least steps between them) 2 nd most parsimonious tree shows ancestry in China Fossil evidence also suggest Africa Recently mitochondrial evidence suggests 1% similarities to Neanderthal o However, are some links between modern humans and Neanderthals Genetic code heavily influenced by African sequence Supported by y chromosome DNA
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