INF105-notes-Stair-Reynolds - http/

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View Full Document Right Arrow Icon Principles of information systems Key: Some facts that came up in the 2003 exam Additional facts that came up in the 2003 assignments Additional facts that came up in the 2002 assignments Chapter 1 - Introduction Information system = a set of components that collect (input), manipulate (process) and share (output) information and provide feedback. square4 Information concepts Data versus information Data = raw facts with little value on their own. Information = facts that have been organised (processed) into something meaningful. The type of information created depends on the relationships defined among the data. Process = tasks performed to achieve an outcome. (Turning data into information). Knowledge = awareness & understanding of how to make information useful. Information += data made useful through the application of knowledge. Characteristics of valuable information: R elevant - Info must be applicable. E conomical - Balance info value with production costs. A ccurate - Info without errors. C omplete - Contains all the important facts. T imely - Info is delivered when needed. S imple - Information that is concise and not overloaded. Flexible - Info can be used for many purposes (by managers, sales people, etc…) Reliable - Info can be depended on. Reliability depends on the source of information. Verifiable - Info can be checked. Accessible - Info should be obtained in the right format at the right time. Secure - Info should be secure from unauthorised users. The value of information Measuring value: Additional profit minus the cost of the information. square4 System and modelling concepts System = a set of components that interact to accomplish goals. System components = inputs, processing mechanisms, outputs and feedback. Knowledge is needed to define relationships among inputs and to organise elements. System components and concepts System boundary = the limits of the system. The system boundary defines the system and distinguishes it from everything else, whereas the system configuration refers to the organisation of system elements. System types: T emporary - Exists for a short time. Permanent - Exists for a long time. O pen - Interacts with environment. Closed - No interaction with environment. A daptive - Can change in response to changes in the environment. Nonadaptive - Can’t change in response to changes in the environment. D ynamic - Undergoes rapid and constant change. Stable - Undergoes little change. S imple - Few components, with straightforward interaction. Complex - Many elements, highly interconnected. System performance and standards 1. Efficiency = doing things right (with minimum waste / effort). = A measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed. (0-100%) 2. Effectiveness = doing the right thing (getting the desired result). = A measure of the extent to which a system achieves its goals .
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