BERG/STRYER VI STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 22 1. Homework 3, 4, 6. Look carefully at Fig. 22.2 on page 618 (and online handout). The similarity of fatty acid beta oxidation (in red, on left) to the way succinate is handled in the Citric Acid Cycle (487, 425) makes this pathway an easy one to learn. Fatty acids are stored as triglycerides , and hydrolyzed by lipase enzymes. Lipases are under the control of Protein Kinase A and hormones etc. Free fatty acids are ionophores which could uncouple mitochondria, so they are rapidly attached to Coenzyme A by acyl CoA synthetase (or fatty acid thiokinase ) via acyl-AMP . Cytoplasmic acyl CoA cannot enter the mitochondrion without the help of carnitine acyltransferase (Fig 22.8). The steps of beta oxidation are shown in Fig 22.9, and the enzymes are named in Table 22.1. Acyl CoA dehydrogenases feed electrons in through complex II directly to the mitochondrial ETC. Complete breakdown of palmitoyl CoA affords 108 ATP, and oxidation of palmitate gives
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