21_lieb_RNA_Txn_notes

21_lieb_RNA_Txn_notes - Biology 202- Lieb RNA Structure...

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Biology 202- Lieb Page 1 of 2 I. Differences between RNA and DNA RNA has ribose (DNA has 2'-deoxyribose): prevents regular double-helix RNA has uracil instead of thymine: deamination of cytosine produces uracil; enzymes recognize uracil in DNA and remove it to prevent mutations RNA is single-stranded : it can adopt secondary structure that includes regions that are double- stranded; allows for diverse functions of RNA RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase does not require a primer, whereas DNA synthesis does. II. Types of RNA (by function) messenger RNA . DNA is in the nucleus, but protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm. The DNA sequence of a gene is copied into an RNA sequence by transcription; the RNA copy of a gene is the mRNA . About 2-3% of the total RNA in a cell. transfer RNA . There is no chemical basis for individual amino acids to recognize RNA directly. tRNA is the adaptor used in translation. 75-90 nt RNAs with extensive secondary and tertiary structure. After transcription they are processed by splicing and by modifications to the nucleotides. Constitute ~15% of the RNA in a cell.
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21_lieb_RNA_Txn_notes - Biology 202- Lieb RNA Structure...

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