mod1 notes - Chemical Purification and Separation (Part 1)...

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Chemical Purification and Separation (Part 1)
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Introduction Organic Laboratory Techniques by Fessenden and Fessenden, 3 rd edition; Brooks/Cole Publishers; ISBN: 0- 534-37981-8. Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry by Leonard, Lygo, and Procter, 2 nd edition; Blackie Academic & Professional; ISBN:0-7514-0200-1 Techniques in Organic Chemistry by Mohrig, Hammond, Schatz, and Morrill, 2 nd edition; Freeman Publishers; ISBN: 0-7167-6638-8. The Student’s Lab Companion by Lehman; 1 st edition; Prentice Hall Publishers; ISBN:0-13-017867-5.
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Basic Techniques Separation Technique Extraction Purification Techniques Centrifugation Crystallization Sublimation Distillation Chromatography
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Extraction Two main uses of Extraction: To remove an organic compound from a reaction mixture. To remove impurities from an organic compound that is dissolved in an organic solvent.
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Extraction Liquid-liquid extraction: Involves the distribution of a solute between two immiscible liquids. Generally one of the solvents is water, in which most organic solvents are not soluble.
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Extraction The most common piece of glassware used in an extraction is the separatory funnel. “Like Dissolves Like”
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Extraction K = C 1 = g of compound per mL organic solvent C 2 g of compound per mL water Where K is defined as the distribution coefficient. If K > 1.5 for an organic substance, it can be extracted from water using an water insoluble organic solvent.
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Extraction You have a 50 mL solution of benzoic acid in water that contains approximately 1.00g of the acid. The distribution coefficient of benzoic acid in diethyl ether and water is around 5. Calculate the amount of acid that would be left in the water solution after three 15-mL extractions with ether. Do the same calculation using one 45-mL extraction with ether to determine which method is more efficient.
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Extraction K = C 1 = g of compound per mL organic solvent C 2 g of compound per mL water Where K = 5 C 1 = 1.00 g - x and 15 mL ether C 2 = ___x ___ 50 mL water
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Extraction 5.00 = 1.00g - x 15 mL ether ___ x_____ 50 mL water Rearrange to get: 5.00 = 1.00g - x * 50 mL water 15 mL ether x Multiply through to get:
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Extraction 5.00 = 50.0 – 50.0x 15 x 15x (5.00) = 50.0 – 50.0x 75x = 50.0 – 50.0x 125x = 50.0 x = 0.4g benzoic acid remains in the aqueous layer
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mod1 notes - Chemical Purification and Separation (Part 1)...

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