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FINAL_REVIEW_part_3 - FINAL REVIEW SOLUBILITY I Solubility...

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FINAL REVIEW: SOLUBILITY I. Solubility: 1. Why care? a. Environmental aspects—can recover valuable metals; remove toxic heavy metals from waste streams b. Medical—imaging; teeth/bones c. Structural—cement/limestone 2. Solubility Rules: a. Compounds with alkali metal cations (first column) or NH 4 + are SOLUBLE b. Compounds with NO 3 - , ClO 4 - , ClO 3 - , CH 3 COO - are SOLUBLE These two rules are always true These two rules apply regardless of the counterion c. Compound containing halide anions (2 nd to last column—F - , Br - , Cl - , I - ) are SOLUBLE Except when F - with Pb 2+ or an alkaline earth cation (2 nd column)—then INSOLUBLE Except when Cl - , Br - , or I - with Ag + or Pb 2+ , then INSOLUBLE d. Compounds containing sulfate (SO 4 2- ) are SOLUBLE Except when with Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ , or Hg 2+ , then INSOLUBLE Example: BaSO 4 is safe for GI (gastrointestinal) imaging regardless of the fact that barium is very toxic. A patient drinks a “cocktail” containing BaSO 4 and the process of the compound through the digestive organs can be followed by x-ray analysis since the compound is opaque to x-rays. The Ba 2+ makes the SO 4 2- insoluble and so it just passes through the system. However, if Ba 2+ was paired with anything from RULE b, then it would
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FINAL_REVIEW_part_3 - FINAL REVIEW SOLUBILITY I Solubility...

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