Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Motivation and Work Perspectives on Motivation Motivation is the energizing and directing of behavior the force behind our

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Chapter 12: Motivation and Work Perspectives on Motivation Motivation is the energizing and directing of behavior, the force behind our yearning for food, our longing  for sexual intimacy, our need to belong, and our desire to achieve.  Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology  Under Darwin’s influence, early theorists viewed behavior as controlled by biological forces, such as  specific instincts. When it became clear that people were naming, not explaining, various behaviors by  calling   them  instincts,  this  approach   fell  into   disfavor.  The  underlying   idea—that  genes  predispose  species-typical behavior—is, however, still influential in evolutionary psychology.  Drives and Incentives  Drive reduction theory states that most physiological needs create aroused psychological states, driving  us to reduce or satisfy those needs. The aim of drive reduction is internal stability, or homeostasis. Thus,  drive reduction motivates survival behaviors, such as eating and drinking. Not only are we pushed by our  internal drives, we are also pulled by external incentives. Depending on our personal experiences, some  stimuli (for example, certain foods) will arouse our desires.  Optimum Arousal  Rather than reducing a physiological need or tension state, some motivated behaviors increase arousal.  Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that too little as well as too much stimulation can  motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal.  A Hierarchy of Motives  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs expresses the idea that, until satisfied, some motives are more compelling  than others. It indicates that physiological needs must first be met, then safety, followed by the need for  belongingness and love, and finally, esteem needs. Once all of these are met, a person is motivated to  meet the need for self-actualization. This order of needs is not universally fixed but it provides a 
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This note was uploaded on 05/17/2008 for the course PS 101 taught by Professor Yost during the Spring '08 term at John Carroll.

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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Motivation and Work Perspectives on Motivation Motivation is the energizing and directing of behavior the force behind our

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