Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Memory The Phenomenon of Memory...

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Chapter 9: Memory The Phenomenon of Memory Information Processing Memory is the persistence of learning over time. Psychologists have proposed several information- processing models of memory. We will use the influential three-stage processing model, which suggests  that we (1) register fleeting sensory memories, some of which are (2) processed into on-screen short-term  or working memories, a tiny fraction of which are (3) encoded for long-term memory and, possibly, later  retrieval. Encoding: Getting Information In How and What We Encode Some types of information, notably information concerning space, time, and frequency, we encode mostly  automatically. Other types of information, including much of our processing of meaning, imagery, and  organization, require effort. Mnemonic devices depend on the memorability of visual images and of  information that is organized into chunks. Organizing information into chunks and hierarchies also aids  memory. Storage: Retaining Information Sensory Memory Information first enters the memory system through the senses. We register and briefly store visual  images via iconic memory and sounds via echoic memory. Working/Short-Term and Long-Term Memory Our short-term memory span for information just presented is limited—a seconds-long retention of up to  about seven items, depending on the information and how it is presented. Our capacity for storing 
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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Memory The Phenomenon of Memory...

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