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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8: Learning Classical Conditioning Although learning by association had been discussed for centuries, it remained for Ivan Pavlov to capture the phenomenon in his classic experiments on conditioning. Pavlovs Experiments Pavlov repeatedly presented a neutral stimulus (such as a tone) just before an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, food) that triggered an unconditioned response (UCR, salivation). After several repetitions, the tone alone (now the conditioned stimulus, CS) triggered a conditioned response (CR, salivation). Further experiments on acquisition revealed that classical conditioning was usually greatest when the CS was presented just before the UCS, thus preparing the organism for what was coming. Other experiments explored the phenomena of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination. Pavlovs work laid a foundation for John B. Watsons emerging belief that psychology, to be an objective science, should study only overt behavior, without considering unobservable mental activity. Watson science, should study only overt behavior, without considering unobservable mental activity....
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- Spring '08