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120.T10O - 1 CSULB Instructor George M Scott ANTHROPOLOGY...

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1 CSULB Instructor: George M. Scott ANTHROPOLOGY 120 INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY OUTLINE—TOPIC 12 SEX AND GENDER I. GENDER VS. SEX A. Sex B. Gender C. Not a Complete One-to-One Association 1. Yes for Heterosexuals 2. No for Homosexuals II. MARGARET MEAD'S PIONEERING CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF GENDER ROLES (From Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies 1935) A. The Arapesh B. The Mundugumor C. The Tchambuli D. Thus Femininity and Masculinity Are Not Entirely Biologically Based. III. BIOLOGICAL-UNIVERSAL REASONS FOR MALE DOMINANCE A. Testosterone→Greater Muscle Mass→Greater Strength (on the Average) B. Pregnancy and Birth (But Not Child Rearing)
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2 C. ? D. ? Nth. ? IV. THEREFORE, DOMINANCE MUST BE MOSTLY CULTURAL; CULTURAL DEFINITION OF GENDER ROLES A. If Cultural, Then Learned; Thus Can be Unlearned and Relearned B. Example—The U.S. 1. Industrial Revolution + Puritanism 2. Today Women Still Trying to Catch Up V. PROBLEM FOR WORKING WIVES-MOTHERS A. "Hard-Ball" at Work vs. Supportive and Nurturing as Wife
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