Jandt8e_ppt11(1) - Chapter 11 Cultures Within Cultures 2015...

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Chapter 11: Cultures Within Cultures © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
What will you learn? Why some immigrant groups have maintained separate cultural identities? How is the marginalization category of acculturation exemplified by the Hmong? How is the separation category of acculturation exemplified by Koreans in Russia and Amish in the U.S.? How can indigenous cultures assert their identities? How are the assimilation and integration categories of acculturation identifiable in the United States? © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
What Are Cultures Within Cultures? Most often based on geographic region, ethnicity, or economic or social class Usually encompass a relatively large number of people and represent the accumulation of generations Awareness of cultures within cultures is a critical intercultural communication skill © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
What Is Diaspora? Term originally used to refer to the experiences of Jews, and later Armenians, who were forcibly exiled from their homelands More recently, scholars have expanded that definition to include all groups that move from one part of the world to another, even if migration was of free choice Diaspora can create cultures within cultures in the country into which peoples move © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Marginalization: The Hmong The Iu Mien and the Hmong, who left Laos, and the Montagnard, who left Vietnam: lost their identities provided by their homelands and were unable to establish a new identity in the United States; are examples of marginalization The Hmong left the villages of Laos and migrated to Australia, France, Canada, the United States an ancient Asian hill tribe that has resisted assimilation for millennia; long persecuted; written language destroyed centuries ago Hmong immigration to the U.S. started in the late 1970s. Today, over 260,000 Hmong reside in the U.S., primarily in California, Minnesota, Wisconsin © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Marginalization: The Hmong Cultural Patterns Hmong culture is evident in the U.S.: grocery stores, radio programs, family centers, festivals Religious practices that blend ancestor worship, animal sacrifice, and shaman healing Early marriage age, marriage by capture, high fertility rates (9.5 children per mother) Ill prepared for life in the U.S.; few marketable skills, high poverty rate (27% among Hmong, compared to 10.5% for the U.S. overall); 40% speak English “less than very well;” the highest welfare dependency rate of any refugee group © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Marginalization Tran Minh Tung (1990) described groups within Cambodian, Laotian, Hmong, and Vietnamese refugee cultures most at risk for marginalization: Newcomers: many were in relocation camps, experienced dehumanizing conditions, resulting in passivity, dependency Refugee teenagers: many become involved in gang criminal behavior; loss of traditional values and lack of support from parents who are themselves experiencing stress may be

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