Jandt8e_ppt06(1) - Chapter 6 Dimensions of Culture 2015...

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Chapter 6: Dimensions of Culture © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
What will you learn? Which are the Hofstede dimensions of culture? How can environmental sustainability be conceptualized as a legitimate dimension of culture independent of the Hofstede dimensions? Which are the Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner dimensions of culture? How can dimensions of culture be applied to specific case studies? © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Hofstede Dimensions In 1980, Dutch management researcher Geert Hofstede first published the results of his study of more than 100,000 employees of the multinational IBM in 40 countries Hofstede was attempting to locate value dimensions across which cultures vary; his dimensions have been used frequently to describe cultures © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Hofstede Dimensions Hofstede identified four dimensions that he labeled individualism-collectivism , masculinity- femininity , power distance , and uncertainty avoidance Hofstede and co-authors later identified a fifth dimension and a sixth dimension, a Confucian work dynamism or long-term orientation versus short- term orientation to life (1984); and indulgence versus self-restraint (2010) © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Individualism Versus Collectivism This dimension refers to how people define themselves and their relationships with others In an individualist culture , the interest of the individual prevails over the interests of the group; ties between individuals are loose; people look after themselves and their immediate families; what a person does defines that person; direct communication style In a collectivist culture , the interest of the group prevails over the interest of the individual; people are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups that continue throughout a lifetime to protect in exchange for unquestioning loyalty; who a person is connected with defines that person; indirect communication style © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Individualism Versus Collectivism Hofstede’s data revealed four associations with this dimension: Wealth: there is a strong relationship between a nation’s wealth and individualism Geography: countries with moderate and cold climates tend to show more individualism Birth rates: Countries with higher birth rates tend to be collectivist History: Confucian countries are collectivist; regions heavily populated by European migrants (North America, Australia, and New Zealand) are individualist © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Individualism Rankings Individualism Rankings 1. United States 10-11. France 21. India 2. Australia 12. Ireland 22-23. Japan 3. Great Britain 13. Norway 22-23. Argentina 4. Canada 14. Switzerland 24. Iran 5. The Netherlands 15. Germany 25. Jamaica 6. New Zealand 16. South Africa 26-27. Brazil 7. Italy 17. Finland 26-27. Arab countries 8. Belgium 18. Austria 28. Turkey 9. Denmark 19. Israel 29. Uruguay 10-11. Sweden 20. Spain 30. Greece © 2015, SAGE Publications, Inc.

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