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Chemistry of the Nonmetal1

Chemistry of the Nonmetal1 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals...

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Chemistry of the Nonmetals • Based on the outer shell electrons • Review: • periodic table, periods, groups • metals, metalloids, nonmetals • types of bonding • ionization energy, electronegativity • acid/base character, oxidation state Periodic Trends Radius Electronegativity Down the group Across the period If electronegativity difference is • Large: __________ bonding, i.e. NaCl • Small: __________ bonding, i.e. CH4 Within a group: • 1st period: ____ bonds, i.e. CO2 • 2nd period and beyond, i.e. SiO2 Chemical Reactions Combustion: requires oxygen and heat CH3OH(l) + O2(g) CH3NH2(g) + O2(g) H2O, CO2, N2 are stable due to high bond energies: O-H (463 kJ) C=O (799 kJ) N≡N (941 kJ) Metathesis: “displacement” AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) A Driving force is often formation of solid Redox: a(s) + 2 H+(aq) C Look for oxidation state change using E0red as guide Acid-Base Reactions: • Neutralization: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) • Hydrolysis: 7 strong acids, 7 strong bases, weak acids (i.e. HF), weak bases (i.e. NH3) • Strong acids have negligible conjugate bases • The weaker the acid, the stronger the conjugate base: HF/F-; NH3/NH4+ Metals (left side) • All are solids, except Hg • Form cations (low IE, low electronegativity) • Oxidation states are positive: s group: +1,+2; transition: many more, element dependent • Form ionic compounds with nonmetals. These are redox reactions. Metal loses electrons and nonmetal gains electrons. Zn(s) + S(s) Ca(s) + O2(g) oxides are basic Nonmetals (right side) • Abundance of chemistry! • Form anions (high IE, EA, high electronegativity) o Often achieve noble gas configuration • Combine with other nonmetals, the product is molecular. HCl(g) SO2(g) CO2(s) + H2O(l)
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P4O10(s) + H2O(l) ” acidic oxides Metalloids (step/chair) • Properties are intermediate • All are solids, structures vary, • Semiconductors: Si, Ge, AlN – covalent bonding • Cations are amphoteric in water (i.e. Sn, Sb) Hydrogen 1s1 +1, -1 • Vital to all living organisms as a solvent and in the sea. • Indispensable in industry as a feedstock for ammonia, methanol, fat hydrogenation. • Reactant for fuel cells. • Isotopes: 1H, 2H(D), 3H(radioactive) • D substitution affects rxn rate • Colorless, odorless, nontoxic, tasteless nonpolar gas (H2) flammable • Not an alkali metal, not a halogen • Diatomic (H2) = 436 kJ (very strong bond) • Low reactivity but can be activated H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l) + 483.6 kJ • O-H bond is common (463 kJ) Preparation Lab: Zn(s) + H+(aq) for small amounts • • Industry: 1. CH4(g) + 3 H2O(g) H 2. CO(g) + H2O(g) 3. C(s) + H2O(g) (Water gas – industrial fuel) 4. NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) H Hydrides: Binary Hydrogen Compounds 1 and 2 (NaH, CaH2) 1. Ionic: Groups 2. Molecular: nonmetals 4A 5A 6A 7A Period 2 CH4 NH3 H2O HF Period 3 SiH4 PH3 H2S HCl 3. Metallic (Interstital): transition metals Noble Gases s2p6 +2 to +8 Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Ra • Monatomic (single atom) • All gases at room temp (low BP)
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Chemistry of the Nonmetal1 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals...

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