Sparks 1-4

Sparks 1-4 - Chapter One A Scientific Approach to the Study...

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Chapter One A Scientific Approach to the Study of Media Effects I. Ways of knowing ( SAE ) a. experience - direct / empiricism b. authority - trusting 1.TV network executives claim the effects of media violence are nonexistent c. science 1. systematic observation II. 4 Goals of Science (PEUC) a. prediction 1.accurate prediction is chief goal of media effects b. explanation 1. knowing why something occurs the way it does 2. place the phenomenon to be explained into a broader framework or pattern that doesn't really require much additional elaboration a. God 3. continually scrutinized c. understanding 1. has to do with knowing the particular sequence of casual events 2. good explanations provide understanding d. control a. descriptive ratings - provide info about nature of the content b.evaluative ratings- make recommendation about who should watch c. MPAA denied suggestions to change ratings d. both ratings ended up attracting viewers III. How are the Goals of Science achieved a. Theory - the thing that generates experiments, testing, data analysis and the like 1. scientific theory consists of more than one statement a. identify key concepts of the theory and how they're related 2. yield hypotheses that are testable by observation 3. Forbidden Fruit Effect/ Psychological reactance theory a. Jack Brehm b. whenever a personal's behavioral freedom is threatened or restricted, they will feel unpleasant psychological reactance 4. theory without data is not very useful in contributing to goals of science b. Falsifiability 1. hypothesis should be able to specify what would make it false in advance 2. it a theory yields a hypothesis than can never be falsified, the theory will enjoy acceptance in the scientific community bc there is no proof against it
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Sparks Chapter 2 *Content Analysis- “is a research technique for the
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2007 for the course COMM 203 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '06 term at USC.

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Sparks 1-4 - Chapter One A Scientific Approach to the Study...

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