Sparks 1-4 - Chapter One A Scientific Approach to the Study...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter One A Scientific Approach to the Study of Media Effects I. Ways of knowing ( SAE ) a. experience - direct / empiricism b. authority - trusting 1.TV network executives claim the effects of media violence are nonexistent c. science 1. systematic observation II. 4 Goals of Science (PEUC) a. prediction 1.accurate prediction is chief goal of media effects b. explanation 1. knowing why something occurs the way it does 2. place the phenomenon to be explained into a broader framework or pattern that doesn't really require much additional elaboration a. God 3. continually scrutinized c. understanding 1. has to do with knowing the particular sequence of casual events 2. good explanations provide understanding d. control 1. when scientists can accurately predict, explain & understand = greater C 2. Bushman & Cantor : media ratings do more to attract than repel viewers a. descriptive ratings - provide info about nature of the content b.evaluative ratings- make recommendation about who should watch c. MPAA denied suggestions to change ratings d. both ratings ended up attracting viewers III. How are the Goals of Science achieved a. Theory - the thing that generates experiments, testing, data analysis and the like 1. scientific theory consists of more than one statement a. identify key concepts of the theory and how they're related 2. yield hypotheses that are testable by observation 3. Forbidden Fruit Effect/ Psychological reactance theory a. Jack Brehm b. whenever a personal's behavioral freedom is threatened or restricted, they will feel unpleasant psychological reactance 4. theory without data is not very useful in contributing to goals of science b. Falsifiability 1. hypothesis should be able to specify what would make it false in advance 2. it a theory yields a hypothesis than can never be falsified, the theory will enjoy acceptance in the scientific community bc there is no proof against it
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Sparks Chapter 2
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern