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Midterm Review

Midterm Review - Philosophy philos = friend lover sophia =...

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Philosophy : philos = friend, lover; sophia = wisdom (first used by Pythagoras) Logic Epistemology = Theory of Knowledge Metaphysics: contains what used to be called “Natural Philosophy” → Science Ethics Meno : Criteria for good definitions → common ground Claim about primacy of definitions → a bit more problematic Theory of Forms → contentious Can virtue be taught, or result of practice? What is virtue/ nature of virtue? Socratic method state of perplexity definition : what is X (i.e. virtue) *question= existence neutral (can imagine unicorns), doesn’t presuppose existence of instances of X should be given in terms that are clearer than X should not contain superfluous material should not confuse X with instances of X ! should cover all but only cases of X !! should not be circular: X should not be used or presupposed in the definition of X !! should consider nature of object: noun, person, action? * primacy of definitions plausible? everyday life (not practical), science (necessary) methodology : (not ethics) right/best way of conducting inquiry/ how to formulate definition accurately theory of forms : definition of X is about a form (eidos, idea)- the form of X which is common to all and only the things that are X problem: “the one and the many ”- may different Xs, but “are” one *influenced by geometry first rigorous science in history; crucial to the Greeks: one of their main claims to fame geometrical shapes are not encountered in the world of sense experience; they are perfect → Platonic forms Numbers Pythagoras (before 500 B.C.) important influence on Plato Platonic Forms (existence debatable) *metaphysical doctrine: metaphysical interpretation of what definitions are about (metaphysics = what is the ultimate nature of reality?) i.e. science= analyze nature of forms, logical relations b/w forms are abstract objects, not in space or time are unchangeable cannot be known through sense perception
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can only be known through the intellect concrete things are what they are because they participate in forms Platonic forms are models/ideals *makes intellect special: faculty by which we access the realm of forms- intellectual intuition Greek definition of human= rational animals Platonism : concern with abstract objects- realm of objects beyond what is accessible
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