Unit 2 Review

Unit 2 Review - Lecture 11 Who are we 4 types(polyphyletic...

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Lecture 11: Who are we? 4 types( polyphyletic ): monotremes (egg-laying, no teats), marsupials (immature offspring reared in pouch “bun in oven” advantage), placentals (fully- developed young b/c placenta 1 st = shrewlike to primates) Greatest diversity of vertebrate lifestyles (abilities) next insects (no saltwater) 2.5 myo: ice age (land bridge b/c water frozen in ice, sea drops new species) Humans : part of tree of life (ardipithecine ancestor ) o Af (200 K yrs), last= Aus, N/S Am Bering Straight (Ice Age: 14K yrs) Lived w/ Neanderthals : massive, rugged (both “humans”)- could talk, but no higher thinking o Theories : killed, bred out, out-competed Walking upright (see predators above grass)- frees hands, large brain:body mass ratio , tools (birds use thorns, BUT we engineer tools/ more specialized), speech/ complex social org (transmit thoughts, hyoid bone in throat), abstract thought- art, burial (34K yrs) o Races : (20-14K yrs) less sun= less Vitamin D synthesization, lighter skin Not good for biodiversity : cause for demise of large-bodied (>10 kg) mammals o Hunting/gathering : vegetables, fruit, animals o Herding (10K yrs- raising own food): habitat destruction
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Lecture 12: Behavioral ecology - how to get resources/ live in groups 1973 Nobel prizes: Lorenz - Imprinting ( baby ducks- pt in life to learn: who is mom?), Tinbergen - Stimulus/ Response ( seagulls-babies beg b/c mom or dad?) von Frisch - Communication ( bees-food location) o WWII: Lorenz (Ger) saved Tinbergen (Holl) from SS, Frisch (Ger) smuggled gold (crushed like pollen, gathered hives) Behavior studies 1930s: descriptive/ proximate ( Ethology ) HOW behavior occurs (purpose)/ ultimate explanation (early Behavioral ecology ) WHY o Why would natural selection favor one behavior over another? o Led to Physiology, Endocrinology, Genetics (i.e. slob/clean bees); nature v. nurture (are behaviors learned?) o Ev. fitness= lifetm survival x lifetm reproduction (expected # offspring) WHY not HOW things happen to get greater fitness o Foraging ecology : more energy/ nutrients(=better survival, more resources for reproduction) in least time : less exposed to predators, more time for reproduction o Bluegills : select to eat what gives greatest amount of food (both by size and abundance) to maximize rate of energy intake o Plants : “forage” for photons, nutrients, and water change leaves/roots for better fitness (photosynthesis production) Leaf size/ shape effects photosynthesis/ water loss Root structure/ depth volume determine nutrient/ water intake o Waggle dance : not to communicate which flower to go to, but WHY flowers are selected (provide greater fitness provide nutrients to ^ fitness, getting food from one takes less time?) Fitness: natural selection favors relative (not absolute) reproduction, reproductive success (not reproduction) o Mouse A: 10 babies Mouse B: 5 babies A’s babies produce 2,
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Unit 2 Review - Lecture 11 Who are we 4 types(polyphyletic...

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