Unit 1 Review

Unit 1 Review - BIOS 10162 Unit 1 Review Lecture 1:...

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BIOS 10162 Unit 1 Review Lecture 1: Biodiversity - what is life/ why such variety? Threat: cannot fix w/ technology (Dr. Peter Ravan , papal scientific advisor) E.O. Wilson : (ecologist, Crawford Award) coined term, urged gov to protect o 3 categories: ecosystems/ habitats, species, genetic material As human population increases (exponentially), loss of species increases *Biodiversity important to humans: economics, culture, health; oldest pursuit in Bio o 6 th mass extinction: hunting, species introductions, habitat destruction, pollution, pesticides… ( The World Without Us : construction soon gone, but damage lasting) o Tragedy of the Commons (Rev. Thomas Malthus , influenced Darwin/ founded “population ecology”): all earthly resources subject to Tragedy, esp. as human pop. Increases o Canary : warns miners of destruction extend analogy to world: if species disappearing, humans next? Lecture 2: Biogeography - biodiversity patterns Body size-latitude relationships o Bergman’s Rule: larger-boded species found near poles surface area: body mass ratio smaller, better for heat conservation (i.e. polar bears) o Allen Rule’s: smaller appendages found near poles extremities (i.e. ears) lose heat Life forms similarities w/ similar physical environments: characteristics= adaptations to environment (i.e. Australia/ Africa, Australia/ N Am) Biogeographic zones : places with related species common evolution; geographic barriers (on land coincidental w/ continental drift) for species mvmnt o 2 categories: terrestrial (land), oceanic (sea) Zoogeographic zones: most similar: Palearctic, Nearctic b/c land bridge; Australia different b/c isolated (island) Continental patterns : more species diversity S near equator (latitude), peaks in E to W b/c of mtns. continental patterns vary in different countries Oceanic (marine) patterns : increased coral diversity with increased temperature Island = smaller unit of study of patterns (i.e. Krakatau regeneration after volcano; appearance of seeds traveling from other islands) o Species- area relationship: bigger (no space limit), near mainland (higher immigration rates b/c species mvmnt easier)= ideal o Over time: rate of immigration decreases b/c species diversity is limited; rate of extinction increases b/c more competition emerges o Between islands: similar species doing different things (i.e. Galapagos finches) lower colonization rate, but greater diversification of species (to minimize competition)
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Lecture 3: Great Science - more than facts; changes how we think about the world * Revolutionary : i.e. Copernicus/ Galileo: Earth ≠ center of universe (faced excommunication), Linnaeus- species classification (naming sys), Mendel- genetics Age of earth: 4004 BC (Archbishop Ussher - Oxford, 1658) o William Paley : “ watchmaker ” Biology/Theology linked intricacies of nature proved existence of God (norm thinking) o James Hutton : geologist, action of water, wind, ice/ fossils
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Unit 1 Review - BIOS 10162 Unit 1 Review Lecture 1:...

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