L13GH09_Terrestrial_Planets_II-_Surfaces

L13GH09_Terrestrial_Planets_II-_Surfaces - Terrestrial...

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February 24, 2009 planetary surfaces I Terrestrial Planets II •Lecture topics: ¾ planetary surfaces, petrology, primitive surfaces, cratering •Text reading: ¾ Chapter 9 – especially pp. 249-266
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February 24, 2009 planetary surfaces I Midterm Info/Reminder • Date: Thursday February 26 •Locat ion : ±P145 • Time: normal class period = 1:00-2:20PM • Topics: lecture material through February 12 • Questions: mix of MC + short answer + quantitative • Calculators: bring yours • Equations, Constants. ..: will be provided
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February 24, 2009 planetary surfaces I Terrestrial Planet Interiors – key concepts Clues to internal structure, composition • density: bulk, uncompressed, crust vs. overall -> composition • moment of inertia -> mass distribution • seismology -> detailed internal structure • differentiation -> hot in the past • magnetic fields -> fluid metal core Sources of internal heat •g r a v i t y • radioactivity • differentiation •t i d e s Cooling • mechanisms and heat loss • effect of size, mass Comparison of major bodies • internal structure, composition etc • current internal T • relation to surface evolution
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February 24, 2009 planetary surfaces I Summary of interiors: differentiation, composition, heating
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February 24, 2009 planetary surfaces I Rocks: different histories, appearances •Igneous ¾ formed directly from cooling of molten magma ¾ granitic (Si-rich): ± repeated melting & differentiation; ± common on Earth, rare elsewhere ¾ basaltic (Si-poor): ± also repeated melting & differentiation ± common on other worlds •Sedimentary ¾ deposition or cementing of small particles such as… ± shale: fine grains (clay, silts. ..); ~4% Earth’s crust ± sandstone: coarser grains, cemented sand grains ± breccia: broken and recemented; ~85% of Moon’s highlands ± evaporites (salts. ..); important on Earth, Mars •Metamorphic rocks ¾ Originally formed as igneous or sedimentary, but changed to a new form by high P, high T or addition of new chemicals ± gneiss (from granite); quartzite (from sandstone), schist (from shale, granite), slate (from shale), marble (from limestone)
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February 24, 2009 planetary surfaces I Surfaces Mercury: Mariner images show a highly cratered surface, large ringed basins, cracks and scarps. The surface is relatively low relief with no major continents or mountain structures. Venus: little surface relief and very few craters of any size. Moon : Bright and heavily cratered highlands, and dark, smooth maria. Maria cover ~20% of the surface and are mostly found on the near side. Mars : craters, volcanoes, plains and canyons. Clear signs of evolution caused by a variety of factors including internal heating, tectonics, impacts, wind and water.
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February 24, 2009 planetary surfaces I Craters – and impacts… • Galileo discovered craters on the moon in 1610 • reasons for near/far side differences not fully understood ¾ thicker crust on far side?
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2009 for the course PHYS 275 taught by Professor Harris during the Winter '09 term at Waterloo.

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L13GH09_Terrestrial_Planets_II-_Surfaces - Terrestrial...

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