Atmosphere__climate_and_weather

Atmosphere__climate_and_weather - Atmosphere nitrogen...

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Atmosphere nitrogen oxygen argon Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earth's gravity. There is no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. It slowly becomes thinner and fades away into space. Three quarters of the atmosphere's mass is within 11 km of the planetary surface. The Karman line, at 100 km (62 miles), is also frequently used as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space. Theodore von Kármán, a Hungarian-American engineer and physicist who was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics. He first calculated that around this altitude the Earth's atmosphere becomes too thin for aeronautic purposes. Also, there is an abrupt increase in atmospheric temperature and interaction with solar radiation. . NOAA, wikipedia
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Truman, 2004 Less than 50% of the incoming solar radiation on average becomes absorbed by the earth’s surface, 70% of which is eventually lost back to space. Equatorial regions receive net surplus, whereas polar regions (N and S of ~40 o latitude) have a deficit. Energy is re- distributed by winds and ocean currents. Earth’s heat budget Greenhouse effect 0.0002 in 0.004 in Earth receives most of its energy as visible light but most radiation emitted back is infrared
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Earth’s axis is tilted at 23.5 o . This tilt is highly significant and is responsible for seasons. http://www.windows.ucar.edu Spring and autumnal equinoxes: sun directly above equator, day=night. Summer solstice (NH): sun is directly above Tropic of Cancer, longest day, shortest night. Winter Solstice (NH): sun is directly above Tropic of Capicorn, longest night, shortest day.
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Energy: radiation, convection, conduction, advection Radiation: energy transfer by electromagnetic waves that can take place through vacuum, e.g. solar and terrestrial radiation. Convection: heat transfer by mass movement and circulation within a substance. Very important in oceans and atmosphere. Conduction: transfer of heat through molecular collisions, e.g. in the earth crust and between earth’s surface and atmosphere. Electromagnetic spectrum (science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/waves3.html) Visible light consists of six primary colors (science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/visible.html)
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Solar energy is a major driving force behind weather and climate. Climate : average and extreme weather conditions at particular place over time. Characteristics of climate are based on long-term observations of weather patterns. Weather : atmospheric conditions of a given region for short periods of time such as days and weeks. Weather and climate are characterized by temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, airmasses and fronts, violent weather.
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Temperature is controlled by: - latitude : the farther from equator the less solar radiation; - geographic position (proximity to the ocean): ocean heats up and cools down slower than land, therefore maritime climates are typically characterized by
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2009 for the course EARTH 122 taught by Professor Calia during the Winter '08 term at Waterloo.

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Atmosphere__climate_and_weather - Atmosphere nitrogen...

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