history_of_Mes_and_Cenozoic_2

history_of_Mes_and_Cenozoic_2 - Major events - appearance...

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Major events - appearance of dinosaurs, flying and swimming reptiles in Triassic and their extinction at K/T boundary. - evolution of mammals from therapsids in Triassic; - evolution of birds from dinosaurs in Jurassic; - flowering plants (angiosperms) appeared during Jurassic; - K/T extinction as a result of asteroid impact 65 ma. Photo by Ryan Bushby www.thefeltsource.com/DinosaursLarge.JPG
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Evolution was affected by - climate and related vegetation changes; - continuing breakup of Pangaea and separation of continents, e.g. Antarctica, Australia, South America; - sea level changes and land bridges related to Ice Ages; - more recently human activity directly or indirectly led to the extinction of many species; www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPaleo5.html
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The term dinosaur was suggested by Richard Owen in 1842 (‘ fearfully great reptiles ’) Saurischian (lizard-hiped dinosaurs): Sauropoda (large herbivores) Theropoda (bipedal carnivores) Ornithischian (bird-hipped): Thyreophora (armored dinosaurs), Marginocephalia (horned dinosaurs), Ornithopoda (plant-eating dinosaurs) Wicander & Monroe, 2004
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Maniraptora : Velociraptor Ornithomimidae: "Bird Mimics”, the ostrich-like dinosaurs Tyrannosauridae: Tyrannosaurus rex Theropoda Sauropoda Diplodocus, Smithsonian Photo by Dane A. Penland. Diplodocus carnegii. Artwork © 1998 Michael Skrepnick
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Ornithischian dinosars (‘bird-hipped’) Thyreophora (armored dinosaurs) Marginocephalia: Horned dinosaurs Ornithopoda: plant-eating dinosaurs
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Arguments in favor of warm-blooded (endothermic) dinosaurs (especially theropods, bipedal carnivores) - some theropod dinosaurs had feathers in addition to scales; all presently-living animals with feathers are warm-blooded; - there were high-latitudes dinosaurs that could not migrate with seasons because landmasses were separated by oceans and were able to survive during cold seasons; - egg brooding; Doubts about endothermy - some evidence (e.g. the structure of nasal passages) suggests that dinosaurs did not have high resting metabolic rate as warm-blooded animals do; - modern mammals and birds consume 20 times more food and oxygen compared to cold-blooded reptiles of the same body mass.
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Pterosaurs: flying reptiles Pterosaurs had hollow bones, large brains with well-developed optic lobes, and several crests on their bones to which flight muscles attached. All
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2009 for the course EARTH 122 taught by Professor Calia during the Winter '08 term at Waterloo.

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history_of_Mes_and_Cenozoic_2 - Major events - appearance...

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