Study_guide_2_Earth_122 - Study guide 2 (includes Rock

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Study guide 2 (includes Rock Classification-metamorphic rocks; Earth History: Absolute and Relative Dating; Geologic History of Precambrian and Paleozoic; Geologic History of Mesozoic and Cenozoic; Mineral Resources; Atmosphere, Climate and Weather) Rock classification (metamorphic rocks only) - definition of a metamorphic rock; factors controlling composition of metamorphic rock- parent rock, directed stress, heat, chemically active fluids; influence of parent rock, examples of metamorphic rocks and their parent rocks; - foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks and their examples; - definitions of metamorphic grade, index minerals and metamorphic facies; - types of metamorphism (where and how it takes place): burial, contact, regional; fault- zone, impact; Earth history: absolute and relative dating - definition of relative and absolute dating; - principles of relative dating: original horizontality, continuity, superposition, cross- cutting relationship, inclusions; definition of each; - definition of unconformity; classification of unconformities (angular, disconformity, nonconformity); - discovery of radioactivity; - absolute dating: definition of radioactive isotope; parent and daughter isotopes; half-life; how to determine the age of rock based on half-life and parent/daughter ratio; C14 method; dendrochronology; - definition of fossil; types of fossils: body and trace; classification of body fossils; definition of index fossils; Law of Fossil Succession; - definition of correlation; use of fossils in correlation; - names of eons and eras; age of the Earth; beginning of Archean, Proterozoic, Phanerozoic (ma), beginning of Mesozoic (ma), beginning of Cenozoic (ma); - names of periods of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic (extra credit ); - interpretation of rock sequences using absolute dates and principles of relative dating ( extra credit ); Earth history during Precambrian and Paleozoic - characteristics of Earth’s environment during Hadean; - definition of shield, craton, platform and orogenic belt; - outgassing, early Earth atmosphere and formation of oceans; - Archean rocks: granite/gneiss and greenstone belts; the oldest rocks on earth; formation of cratons and continental accretion during Archean; - plate tectonics and continental accretion during Proterozoic; Greenville orogeny and Mid-Continent rift; supercontinent Rodinia; differences between Archean and Proterozoic rocks; - ancient glaciations and idea of ‘Snowball Earth’; evidence for them; - changing atmosphere; photochemical dissociation and photosynthesis as sources of oxygen; evolution of photosynthesis; ‘oxygen holocaust’; - Banded Iron Formations and conditions of its formation; - continental red beds and their significance; - origin of life: major steps; A. Oparin and S. Miller contributions; conditions for polymerization; from complex organic compounds to living cells: cell membrane and
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Study_guide_2_Earth_122 - Study guide 2 (includes Rock

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