Capacitors ()ditCvtdt=and () ()0110ttidvidCCτττ−∞==+∫∫These equations describe an voltage and current that adhere to the passive convention. All of the currents and voltages are constant in a dc circuit. When the capacitor voltage is constant, the capacitor current is zero. Capacitors act like open circuits in dc circuits. Suppose the capacitor voltage is discontinuous, for example 18.104.22.168.5tt<⎧=⎨>⎩That is, the voltage changes from 4.3 V to 4.4 V abruptly at time 2.5 st=. At , the
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