Chapter_4_part_3_c - Previously 1st 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Calculations with specific heat Calculations with heat of combustion Bond energy

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1 Chapter 4 Part 3: Fuels Previously • 1st, 2nd Law of Thermodynamics • Calculations with specific heat • Calculations with heat of combustion • Bond energy calculations • Entropy Today • Finish calculation examples • Discuss catalysis • Discuss fuel types –Coa l – Petroleum • Discuss distillation • Gasoline additives and substitutes • Learn about isomers Catalysis • A catalyst is something that increases the rate of the reaction by altering the pathway that the reactants take to become products. • A catalyst lowers the activation energy, or
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2 Energy Consumption • The US uses an incomparable amount of energy—650,000 kcal per person per day – Equal to 65 barrels of oil or 16 tons of coal, each person each day • Compared to 2000 kcal per day by early hominids Energy Consumption • Industrialized, wealthy nations use more energy than nations struggling with poverty • Gross national product correlates well with energy production and use – So, too, life expectancy, infant mortality, literacy Fuels Used by U.S. • Figure 4.11 p. 188 • The “Big Three” – Petroleum – Natural Gas –Coa l Ancient Fuel Source • Sunlight • Plants captured and stored the energy from the sun via photosynthesis – Via molecule called chlorophyll –6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + 2800 kJ Æ C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 • Living things then use that energy in metabolism –C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Æ 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2
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3 Ancient Fuel Source (cont’d) • Decay of plants usually goes to CO 2 and water, but sometimes, under certain conditions, get • “Vegetable matter” that was transmuted over millions of years into fossil fuels: • Coal and petroleum Coal • Most plentiful fossil fuel – US estimated to have more than 40% of the world’s
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2008 for the course CH 304k taught by Professor Walker during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter_4_part_3_c - Previously 1st 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Calculations with specific heat Calculations with heat of combustion Bond energy

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