Chapter_4_part_3_c - Previously 1st 2nd Law of...

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1 Chapter 4 Part 3: Fuels Previously 1st, 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Calculations with specific heat Calculations with heat of combustion Bond energy calculations • Entropy Today Finish calculation examples Discuss catalysis Discuss fuel types – Coal – Petroleum Discuss distillation Gasoline additives and substitutes Learn about isomers Catalysis A catalyst is something that increases the rate of the reaction by altering the pathway that the reactants take to become products. A catalyst lowers the activation energy, or energy barrier, of the reaction.
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2 Energy Consumption The US uses an incomparable amount of energy—650,000 kcal per person per day – Equal to 65 barrels of oil or 16 tons of coal, each person each day Compared to 2000 kcal per day by early hominids Energy Consumption Industrialized, wealthy nations use more energy than nations struggling with poverty Gross national product correlates well with energy production and use – So, too, life expectancy, infant mortality, literacy Fuels Used by U.S. Figure 4.11 p. 188 The “Big Three” – Petroleum – Natural Gas – Coal Ancient Fuel Source • Sunlight Plants captured and stored the energy from the sun via photosynthesis – Via molecule called chlorophyll – 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + 2800 kJ Æ C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Living things then use that energy in metabolism – C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Æ 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + 2800 kJ
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3 Ancient Fuel Source (cont’d) Decay of plants usually goes to CO 2 and water, but sometimes, under certain conditions, get “Vegetable matter” that was transmuted over millions of years into fossil fuels: Coal and petroleum Coal Most plentiful fossil fuel – US estimated to have more than 40% of the world’s reserves of coal
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