Cell signaling basicsNeurtotransmitter has low affinity for its receptor and therefore unbinds after effect has taken place.Autocrine signals may contribute to the community effect and are signals sent within the same cell typeDifferent combination of signals may be necessary for cell survival, if not present-apoptosis.Ligands that diffuse across the cell membrane such as steroids, thyroid hormones, retinoids, and Vitamin D bind with intracellular receptors that bind DNA to regulate the transcription of specific genes. These receptors are part of the nuclear receptor super-family. Orphan nuclear receptors are in this category but have unknown ligands.Cortisol- made in adrenal medulla and influences metabolism of cells, protein catabolism, and more.Vitamin D- synthesized in the skin in response to sunlight and after being converted to an active form in the liver functions in promoting calcium ion uptake in the gut and reducing excretion in the kidneys.
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