Revolution and Reaction in France and Central Europe

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Revolution and Reaction in France and Central Europe 1. France under Louis XVIII a. The Challenge to the Restored Old Regime i. Napoleon abdicated in 1814 and the four allied powers restore the House of Bourbon ii. When Louis XVIII took the throne he was 60 and suffered from severe gout and had been one of the strongest forces pushing for the overthrow of the revolution iii. Louis XVIII appoints a committee to establish a charter for the French people that would outline the government b. The Charter of 1814 i. Legislative functions vested in a two-chamber system, one hereditary and one elected known as the chamber of deputies ii. Only the king could propose a new law, but legislature could petition the king iii. King had power to create new laws if they were deemed necessary for public safety and national interest (i.e. emergency situations) iv. Offered no method of amending or altering this new form of govt v. The charter did not say who the ministers of government were at base responsible for c. Divisions i. During Louis XVIII parties began to emerge and took their names from where they sat and included the right, right-center, left-center, and left ii. Members of the right were the royalists and were eventually known as such, then known as the ultra royalists and finally the ultras…they believed all power derived from God and dreamed of restoring full-scale the old regime iii. Unfortunately the ultras were led by the king’s brother, Charles of
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