Russia in the Nineteenth Century and Early Twentieth Centuries

Russia in the Nineteenth Century and Early Twentieth Centuries

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Russia in the Nineteenth Century and Early Twentieth Centuries 1. Russia and the Romanovs a. Alexander I- rules from 1801-1825, described as a mystical individual, grandson of Catherine the Great, given a broad education, proved to be overall mildly conservative, made few efforts to reform, also middling in foreign policy, by 1820’s his moderation had been pushed away by Metternich, dies in December 1825 and having no son his heir was the Grand Duke Constantine with the next in line being his other brother Nicholas b. Grand Duke Constantine & Nicholas I- by the time of his death the GDC had unofficially renounced his claim to the throne in order to marry a woman of non Russian blood, because GDC had never given up formally his right to inheritance Nicholas did not immediately take the throne and questions arose over who was the legitimate heir, from his post in Poland GDC wrote a letter acknowledging that Nicholas was the new Czar c. The Decembrist Revolts of 1825- Liberals in Russia seized upon the confusion and staged the Decembrist Revolt, declaring GDC as the new czar and chanting Constantine and Constitution, most people were unprepared for a liberal form of government (many people thought constitution was Constantine’s wife), Nicholas moved against the Decembrists and crushed the revolt, by the end of December Nicholas assumed the throne as Nicholas I 2. Nicholas I- Nationalism and Liberalism at Odds a. Background and Political Outlook- serves on the throne from 1825-1855, the revolt, although crushed, frightened Nick b/c it was led by the upper class, he had not received the western education of his brother but believed in the importance of military and autocracy, education ended at the age of 15 and therefore he detested constitutionalism and any desire for change, believed revolution was due to an influx of liberalism and these were further confirmed by the revolutions in 1830 and 1848 in Europe, therefore he attempts to seal Russia off from the west through censorship and restriction of travel abroad b. Building up his power- in 1831 he established the third section (secret police) to guard against political corruption and guard against any movements undermining the authority of the czar, dissidents were sought out, arrested, and either exiled or executed c. Aid to Austria- in 1849 Nick sent troops to Austria to help the Empire control rebellions in Hungary d. Slavophiles vs. Westerns- i. Slavophiles rose in the 1830’s as a group who saw Russian history as separate and distinct from the rest of Europe and thought the Russian civilization was based on a different cultural inheritance and pointed to the Slavic ancestry of the Russian people…this had to preserved at all costs from contamination from Western ideas
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2008 for the course HIST 0011 taught by Professor Proctor during the Spring '08 term at Tufts.

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Russia in the Nineteenth Century and Early Twentieth Centuries

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