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Alexander Dubcek (1921- 1992)-Reformist leader of Czechoslovakia in 1968-Socialism with a human face-He was the first secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia -He attempted to reform thecommunist regimeduring the Prague Springbut he was forced to resign following theWarsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakiaby the Soviet Union. -Prague Spring was a period of political liberation in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after WWII. The Berlin Airlift (1948 – 1949)-The Berlin Conference of 1948 got the Big 3 together, Stalin, Truman and Churchill. They talked about the division of Europe. They decided to impose communism in the east. They also decided to divide Germany into four parts. Hence, as a result, Berlin, located in east Germany became a communist and the west became a capitalist like west Germany. -The east berlin was under the Soviet rule. It was also divided further and soin 1948, the Russians wanted it all by themselves and so blocked all the canals, roads, railway lines and highways from west Germany to west Berlin.-The Russians did this thinking that the U.S. France and Britain would not getenough food supply due to lack of transport and end up leaving Germany allto herself. -As a result, the United States and its allies decided to transport everything through air from west Germany to west Berlin which is called as the “Berlin Airlift”. The Berlin Wall (1961)-On August 13th, the communist govt. of the German Democratic Republic orEast Germany began to build a wired concrete wall dividing the east and thewest Berlin. The main purpose of building this wall was to prevent the western “fascist” from entering East Germany and undermining the socialiststate. -The wall symbolized the Cold War.
Imre Nagy -Reformist leader of the Hungarian Communist Party -Introduced more liberal regime into Hungary, where manufacture of consumer good was encouraged -He fought for the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution and afterwards returned to Hungary a communist. -He became the prime minister in 1953, no longer on board with the Soviet’svision, he withdrew Hungary from the Warsaw Past and led the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 against the Soviets. -He was later executed for treason after 2 years. Brezhnev Doctrine -Leonid Brezhnev was the General Secretary of the communist part after Khrushchev (1964-1982) -The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy outlined in 1968 which called for the use of Warsaw Pact forces to intervene in any Eastern Bloc nation which was seen to compromise communist rule and Soviet domination, either by trying to leave the Soviet sphere of influence or even moderate its policies. The Doctrine was seen clearly in the Soviet crushing of thePrague Springmovement in Czechoslovakia.