BIOL 1402 Exam

BIOL 1402 Exam - BIOL 1402 Exam#3 Chapter 15 Biotechnology Biotechnology application of technology to natural biological processes Transgenic

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BIOL 1402 Exam #3 Chapter 15. Biotechnology Biotechnology- application of technology to natural biological processes Transgenic biotechnology- splicing of DNA from one species to another Reproductive cloning- producing mammals Forensic biotechnology- used to establish individuals (criminal, etc.) Personalized medicine- treatments tailored to individual genetic makeup Transgenic Organism- Organism whose genome has stably incorporated one or more genes from another species. Produced synthetic HGH (Human Growth Hormone- humans grow to full height) by snipping HGH from human genome and inserting into E. coli bacterium. Bacteria transcribed and translated gene, and was then grown by billions in vats. A gene was taken from human, and spliced into bacteria. With this, bacteria became a transgenic organism. Goal: to produce quantities of a hypothetical human protein through the use of a living organism. Restriction Enzymes- enzymes occurring naturally in bacteria that are used in occurring biotechnology to cut DNA into desired fragments. (In nature, bacteria use them to cut up the DNA of invading viruses.) DNA was cut in very specific places. Sticky Ends- DNA which has the potential to stick to other complementary DNA sequences. Plasmids- extra chromosomal rings of bacterial DNA that can be as little as 1,000 base pairs in length and not part of the bacterial chromosome. They can replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome, and can move into bacterial cells. Transformation- a cell’s incorporation of genetic material from outside its boundary. Bacteria take up DNA from it’s surroundings, and then the DINA will function inside the bacterial cells. Getting Human Genes into Plasmids 1. Use restriction enzymes to snip gene of interest from the isolated human genome. (allows it to be cut into fragments, sticky ends) 2. Insert gene into plasmid (complementary stick-ends will fit together). 3. Transfer the plasmid back into bacterial cell. 4. Let bacterial cells replicate. Harvest and purify the human protein produced by the plasmids inside the bacterial cells. Recombinant DNA- two or more segments of DNA that have been combined by humans
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This note was uploaded on 05/17/2008 for the course BIOL 1402 taught by Professor Atanasov during the Spring '08 term at Texas Tech.

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BIOL 1402 Exam - BIOL 1402 Exam#3 Chapter 15 Biotechnology Biotechnology application of technology to natural biological processes Transgenic

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