PHP2360 Lecture 5

PHP2360 Lecture 5 - Formative Research Conducted...

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Formative Research Formative Research Conducted before/while an intervention program is being developed Should continue throughout the life of the project to “fine-tune” the intervention over time Especially important when designing interventions for specific or diverse cultural groups Especially important when there is a limited knowledge base regarding effective interventions May involve a variety of qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques
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Using Formative Research to Using Formative Research to Design an Intervention Design an Intervention Obtain detailed information about the target audience and the context within which the intervention will be designed Determine target audience’s knowledge, beliefs, perceptions, behaviors etc. Verify that the determinants and intervention objectives are appropriate for the target group See how the determinants and objectives are perceived Determine ways in which the objectives may be approached in a health behavior program Pretesting media and messages
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Qualitative vs. Quantitative Approaches Qualitative vs. Quantitative Approaches Qualitative approaches: Emphasize responses in people’s own words Quantitative approaches: Emphasize more structured, closed-ended data gathering
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Qualitative vs. Quantitative Approaches Qualitative vs. Quantitative Approaches Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages and Disadvantages Qualitative approaches: Quantitative approaches:
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Triangulation Triangulation Brings findings from multiple data sources, methods and investigators together allowing planners to increase the validity of their findings
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Model 1 Model 1 Qualitative methods are used to help develop quantitative measures and instruments Qualitative Quantitative Results Model 2 Model 2 Qualitative methods are used to help explain quantitative findings Quantitative Results Qualitative Model 3 Model 3 Qualitative methods are used to embellish a primarily qualitative study Qualitative Results Quantitative Model 4 Model 4 Qualitative and quantitative methods are used equally and parallel Qualitative Results Quantitative
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Common Formative Research Methods Common Formative Research Methods Focus-group discussions In-depth interviews Observation Household surveys Intercept interviews Participatory rural appraisal techniques Role-playing
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Method Advantages Advantages Disadvantages Disadvantages New survey data Representative sample Large sample possible Potentially reliable & valid tools Requires time and money Questions may be limited in scope In-depth interviews Selected sample Can be open-ended Can be more personal Usually limited to smaller sample Direct observation Selected sample Can be unobtrusive Limits reporting bias Assesses environment and behavior only Perceptions limited Focus groups Not expensive Open-ended discussion Quick results Community involvement Difficult to recruit sample Special training needed
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PHP2360 Lecture 5 - Formative Research Conducted...

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