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As early as the 1840s

As early as the 1840s - As early as the 1840s Chinese...

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As early as the 1840s, Chinese immigrants appeared on the West Coast and brought their Buddhism with them. “Church” Buddhism among Japanese immigrantscame to Hawaii in 1889 and to California a decadelater. The carriers were Judo Shinshu missionaries of the Nishi Hongwanji movement. According to traditional account, at the time when he became a Buddha, Amida established the Western Kingdom, called the Pure Land. _ The second form of Buddhism in the UnitedStates, stressing meditation, became representedmost notably in Japanese Zen and Tibetanvarieties.The goal of Zen was to bring a person toenlightenment through the practice of mediation. http://www.csulb.edu/~dsteiger/American5.pdf A nativist backlash against the Chinese workers began in the 1870s and generated the rhetoric that led to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. That exclusion policy was reaffirmed and expanded to include other "Asiatics" by the end of the century. Not only were workers prohibited, but Chinese women who might enable the workers already here to settle down to a family life were also excluded. The Chinese population dwindled, and many Chinese workers, unable to afford the return to China were stranded thousands of miles from their families. From 1920 to 1950, the population of Boston's Chinatown grew from 1,000 to just 1,600. Nevertheless, the Chinese started a number of community organizations during this time, including the first Buddhist temples of the area, consisting of small home altars and family shrines. It was not until 1943 that the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed. Today, Chinatown is a vibrant urban center, still attracting suburban Chinese into the city
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with its restaurants and stores. Chinese cultural activities include the annual Autumn Moon Festival and the Dragon Boat Festival. In the 1870s, Edwin Arnold's famous rendition of the life of the Buddha, The Light of Asia , crossed the Atlantic and became the first Buddhist bestseller in America. Another stream of Boston's Buddhist history begins in the late 1870s when Edward Morse, a professor of Comparative Anatomy and Zoology at Bowdoin College, went to the Imperial University of Tokyo to organize a department of zoology. Before
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