March.11.authoritarian.regimes - Authoritarian Regimes...

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Unformatted text preview: Authoritarian Regimes March 11, 2008 Types of Political Regimes 1. Democratic A. Presidential B. Parliamentary 2. Totalitarian A. Fascism B. Communism 3. Authoritarian A. Patrimonial B. Bureaucratic/military C. Single-party Key Distinctions among Regimes Political Pluralism Role of Ideology Patterns of Political Mobilization Relations with Civil Society -- Democracy: Unrestricted pluralism, competing ideologies, voluntary mobilization, autonomous civil society -- Totalitarianism: No pluralism (monolithic authority), official ideology, mandatory mobilization, penetration and control of civil society -- Authoritarianism: Restricted pluralism, no guiding ideology, discourage mobilization, selective repression of civil society Democracy's "Procedural Minimum" Universal adult suffrage Free, fair, and competitive elections Civil rights and liberties that ensure freedom of speech and association; these are essential to uphold minority rights, which are as central to democratic governance as majority rule Ethiopia's Political Background Ancient state dating to 980 B.C.; centralization of authority under emperor second half of 19th century Reign of Emperor Haile Selassie 1916/30 - 1974 Fought off colonization by Italy late 19th century; defeated and occupied by Mussolini 1935-36 Liberated by Ethiopian resistance fighters and British allies 1941; restoration of emperor Selassie Officially Christian society, but population has nearly as many Muslims as Christians One the world's poorest countries; per capita GDP of $823 Emperior Haile Selassie (1916/30-1974) The Logic of Patrimonial Authoritarianism Personalistic authority Weak political institutions Predates mass political mobilization Govern by co-opting elites, distributing patronage Downfall of the Emperor 1960: military rebellion by palace guards 1966: peasant rebellion and growing student unrest 1972-74: famine and inflationary spiral triggered by oil crisis Feb. 1974: economic crisis triggers riots, followed by military rebellion and general strike Sept. 1974: Haile Selassie deposed and imprisoned by junior military officers; other regime officials executed; establishment of new Marxist government Overthrow Marxist government 1991, transition to hybrid regime with dominant party ...
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