Upgrading And Repairing PCs, 14th Edition (2003) - 00 7455...

This preview shows page 1 out of 1632 pages.

Unformatted text preview: 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 1:22 PM Page i Contents at a Glance UPGRADING AND REPAIRING PCS 14th Edition Scott Mueller Introduction 3 1 Development of the PC 11 2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 27 3 Microprocessor Types and Specifications 41 4 Motherboards and Buses 201 5 BIOS 355 6 Memory 415 7 The IDE Interface 491 8 The SCSI Interface 537 9 Magnetic Storage Principles 573 10 Hard Disk Storage 595 11 Floppy Disk Storage 641 12 High-Capacity Removable Storage 667 13 Optical Storage 715 14 Physical Drive Installation and Configuration 813 15 Video Hardware 847 16 Audio Hardware 921 17 I/O Interfaces from Serial and Parallel to IEEE-1394 and USB 961 18 Input Devices 995 19 Internet Connectivity 1041 20 Local Area Networking 1101 21 Power Supply and Chassis/Case 1155 22 Building or Upgrading Systems 1217 23 PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 1271 24 File Systems and Data Recovery 1339 Appendixes A Glossary 1381 B Key Vendor Contact Information C Troubleshooting Index 1463 List of Acronyms 1497 Index 1503 On the DVD 201 West 103rd Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46290 Printers and Scanners Portable PCs Vendor List Technical Reference Original PC Hardware Reference Hard Drive Specifications Database 1457 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 1:22 PM Page ii Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 14th Edition Copyright 2003 by Que Associate Publisher Greg Wiegand Executive Editor Rick Kughen All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. Acquisitions Editor International Standard Book Number: 0-7897-2745-5 Team Coordinator Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2001099514 Printed in the United States of America First Printing: September 2002 Rick Kughen Development Editor Todd Brakke Managing Editor Thomas F. Hayes Project Editor Tricia Sterling Liebig Production Editor Megan Wade Sharry Lee Gregory Indexer Erika Millen Proofreader Plan-It Publishing Trademarks All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Que cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Warning and Disclaimer Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an as is basis. The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the DVD or programs accompanying it. Technical Editors Mark Soper Mark Reddin James F. Kelly Karen Weinstein Software Development Specialist Michael Hunter Interior Designer Anne Jones Cover Designer Anne Jones Layout Technician Michelle Mitchell 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 1:22 PM Page iii Contents Introduction 3 1 Development of the PC 11 Computer History—Before Personal Computers 12 Timeline 12 Mechanical Calculators 16 The First Mechanical Computer 16 Electronic Computers 17 Modern Computers 18 From Tubes to Transistors 18 Integrated Circuits 19 The First Microprocessor 20 History of the PC 22 Birth of the Personal Computer 22 The IBM Personal Computer 23 The PC Industry More Than 20 Years Later 24 2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 27 What Is a PC? 28 Who Controls PC Software? 28 Who Controls PC Hardware? 31 PC Design Guides 34 System Types 35 System Components 38 3 Microprocessor Types and Specifications 41 Microprocessors 42 Pre-PC Microprocessor History 42 Processor Specifications 45 Data I/O Bus 48 Address Bus 50 Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 51 Processor Modes 51 Processor Speed Ratings 54 Processor Speeds and Markings Versus Motherboard Speed 58 Cyrix Processor Speeds 61 AMD Processor Speeds 62 Overclocking 66 Cache Memory 68 How Cache Works 69 Level 2 Cache 71 Processor Features 74 SMM (Power Management) 74 Superscalar Execution 74 MMX Technology 76 SSE and SSE2 77 3DNow! and Enhanced 3DNow! 78 Dynamic Execution 78 Dual Independent Bus Architecture 79 Processor Manufacturing 80 Processor Remarking 84 PGA Chip Packaging 86 Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 87 Processor Socket and Slot Types 89 Zero Insertion Force 91 Socket 1 91 Socket 2 92 Socket 3 93 Socket 4 94 Socket 5 95 Socket 6 96 Socket 7 (and Super7) 96 Socket 8 97 Socket 370 (PGA-370) 98 Socket 423 100 Socket 478 101 Socket A (Socket 462) 101 Socket 603 103 Processor Slots 103 Slot 1 (SC242) 103 Slot 2 (SC330) 104 CPU Operating Voltages 105 Heat and Cooling Problems 107 Heatsinks 107 Active Heatsinks 108 Installing a Heatsink 110 Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 112 Processor Bugs 114 Processor Update Feature 115 Processor Codenames 115 Intel-Compatible Processors (AMD and Cyrix) 118 AMD Processors 119 Cyrix 119 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 iv 1:22 PM Contents Page iv This is the Chapter Title P1 (086) First-Generation Processors 119 8088 and 8086 Processors 119 80186 and 80188 Processors 120 8087 Coprocessor 120 P2 (286) Second-Generation Processors 120 286 Processors 121 80287 Coprocessor 122 P3 (386) Third-Generation Processors 122 386 Processors 122 386DX Processors 123 386SX Processors 124 386SL Processors 124 80387 Coprocessor 124 P4 (486) Fourth-Generation Processors 125 486 Processors 125 486DX Processors 127 486SL 128 486SX 129 487SX 129 DX2/OverDrive and DX4 Processors 130 Pentium OverDrive for 486SX2 and DX2 Systems 132 AMD 486 (5x86) 132 Cyrix/TI 486 133 P5 (586) Fifth-Generation Processors 133 Pentium Processors 134 First-Generation Pentium Processor 137 Second-Generation Pentium Processor 138 Pentium-MMX Processors 140 Pentium Defects 141 Testing for the FPU Bug 142 Power Management Bugs 142 Pentium Processor Models and Steppings 142 AMD-K5 144 Intel P6 (686) Sixth-Generation Processors 144 Dynamic Execution 145 Dual Independent Bus 145 Other Sixth-Generation Improvements 145 Pentium Pro Processors 146 Pentium II Processors 150 Celeron 162 Pentium III 164 Pentium II/III Xeon 172 Other Sixth-Generation Processors 173 NexGen Nx586 173 AMD-K6 Series 174 AMD Athlon and Athlon XP 177 AMD Athlon XP 182 AMD Duron 184 Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (M1) and 6x86MX (MII) 185 Intel Pentium 4 (Seventh-Generation) Processors 186 Memory Requirements 189 Power Supply Issues 189 Eighth-Generation (64-bit Register) Processors 194 Itanium and Itanium 2 194 Processor Upgrades 197 OverDrive Processors 198 Processor Benchmarks 198 Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 4 Motherboards and Buses 198 201 Motherboard Form Factors 202 PC and XT 203 Baby-AT 204 Full-Size AT 207 LPX 208 ATX 210 Micro-ATX 215 Flex-ATX 218 ATX Riser 219 NLX 221 WTX 226 Proprietary Designs 226 Backplane Systems 227 Motherboard Components 230 Processor Sockets/Slots 230 Chipsets 232 Chipset Evolution 232 Intel Chipsets 234 AMD Athlon/Duron Chipsets 236 North/South Bridge Architecture 236 Hub Architecture 238 Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets 239 Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 240 Intel 430LX (Mercury) 242 Intel 430NX (Neptune) 242 Intel 430FX (Triton) 242 Intel 430HX (Triton II) 243 Intel 430VX (Triton III) 244 Intel 430TX 245 Third-Party (Non-Intel) P5 Pentium Class Chipsets 245 Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) and Seventh-Generation (Pentium 4) Chipsets 253 Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server) 258 Intel 440FX (Natoma) 259 Intel 440LX 259 Intel 440EX 260 Intel 440BX 260 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 1:22 PM Page v This is the Current C–Head at the BOTTOM of the Page Intel 440ZX and 440ZX-66 261 Intel 440GX 262 Intel 450NX 262 Intel 810, 810E, and 810E2 263 Intel 815, 815E, and 815EP 266 Intel 820 and 820E 269 Intel 840 272 Intel 850 274 Intel 860 275 Third-Party (Non-Intel) P6-Class Chipsets 275 Athlon/Duron Chipsets 283 AMD Chipsets for Athlon/Duron Processors 283 VIA Chipsets 286 ProSavage PM133 288 Silicon Integrated Systems Chipsets for AMD Athlon/Duron Processors 288 Acer Labs Chipsets for AMD Athlon/Duron Systems 290 Super I/O Chips 290 Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 291 Motherboard Interface Connectors 292 System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 295 The Processor Bus (Front-Side Bus) 300 The Memory Bus 305 The Need for Expansion Slots 306 Types of I/O Buses 306 The ISA Bus 307 The Micro Channel Bus 309 The EISA Bus 311 Local Buses 314 VESA Local Bus 316 The PCI Bus 316 PCI Express 321 Accelerated Graphics Port 322 System Resources 324 Interrupts 325 DMA Channels 332 I/O Port Addresses 333 Resolving Resource Conflicts 337 Resolving Conflicts Manually 338 Using a System-Configuration Template 339 Heading Off Problems: Special Boards 344 Plug-and-Play Systems 347 Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 349 Documentation 352 Using Correct Speed-Rated Parts 352 5 BIOS Contents v 355 BIOS Basics 356 BIOS Hardware/Software 357 Motherboard BIOS 359 ROM Hardware 360 ROM Shadowing 362 ROM (True or Mask ROM) 363 PROM 363 EPROM 365 EEPROM/Flash ROM 366 ROM BIOS Manufacturers 367 Upgrading the BIOS 373 Where to Get Your BIOS Update 374 Determining Your BIOS Version 374 Backing Up Your BIOS’s CMOS Settings 375 Keyboard-Controller Chips 376 Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 381 Replacing a BIOS ROM 383 Year 2000 BIOS Issues 383 CMOS Setting Specifications 384 Running or Accessing the CMOS Setup Program 384 BIOS Setup Menus 384 Maintenance Menu 385 Main Menu 386 Advanced Menu 387 Security Menu 400 Power Management Menu 401 Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order) 404 Exit Menu 406 Additional BIOS Setup Features 406 Plug and Play BIOS 408 PnP Device IDs 409 ACPI 409 Initializing a PnP Device 410 BIOS Error Messages 410 General BIOS Boot Text Error Messages 412 6 Memory 415 Memory Basics 416 ROM 418 DRAM 419 Cache Memory: SRAM 420 RAM Memory Types 423 Fast Page Mode DRAM 428 Extended Data Out RAM 429 SDRAM 429 DDR SDRAM 430 RDRAM 431 Memory Modules 434 SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs 435 SIMM Pinouts 439 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 vi 1:22 PM Contents Page vi This is the Chapter Title DIMM Pinouts 442 DDR DIMM Pinouts 444 RIMM Pinouts 446 Physical RAM Capacity and Organization 449 Memory Banks 452 Memory Module Speed 453 Gold Versus Tin 454 Parity and ECC 457 Installing RAM Upgrades 464 Upgrade Options and Strategies 464 Selecting and Installing Memory 465 Troubleshooting Memory 470 Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 473 The System Logical Memory Layout 475 Conventional (Base) Memory 477 Upper Memory Area 477 Extended Memory 484 Preventing ROM BIOS Memory Conflicts and Overlap 486 ROM Shadowing 486 Total Installed Memory Versus Total Usable Memory 487 Adapter Memory Configuration and Optimization 488 7 The IDE Interface 491 An Overview of the IDE Interface 492 Precursors to IDE 492 The IDE Interface 493 IDE Origins 494 IDE Bus Versions 495 ATA IDE 496 ATA Standards 496 ATA-1 (AT Attachment Interface for Disk Drives) 498 ATA-2 (AT Attachment Interface with Extensions-2) 498 ATA-3 (AT Attachment Interface-3) 499 ATA/ATAPI-4 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface Extension-4) 499 ATA/ATAPI-5 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-5) 500 ATA/ATAPI-6 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-6) 501 ATA/ATAPI-7 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-7) 502 ATA Features 502 ATA I/O Connector 502 ATA I/O Cable 506 ATA Signals 507 Dual-Drive Configurations 507 ATA Commands 510 ATA Upgrades 511 Secondary ATA Channel 511 Drive Capacity Limitations 512 Faster Data Transfer 528 ATA Packet Interface 530 Serial ATA 531 ATA RAID 534 8 The SCSI Interface 537 Small Computer System Interface 538 ANSI SCSI Standards 539 SCSI-1 541 SCSI-2 542 SCSI-3 544 SPI or Ultra SCSI 545 SPI-2 or Ultra2 SCSI 546 SPI-3 or Ultra3 SCSI (Ultra160) 548 SPI-4 or Ultra4 SCSI (Ultra320) 550 SPI-5 or Ultra5 SCSI (Ultra640) 550 Fiber Channel SCSI 550 SCSI Cables and Connectors 551 SCSI Cable and Connector Pinouts 552 Single-Ended SCSI Cables and Connectors 553 High Voltage Differential SCSI Signals 556 Expanders 556 Termination 556 SCSI Drive Configuration 559 Start on Command (Delayed Start) 562 SCSI Parity 562 Terminator Power 562 SCSI Synchronous Negotiation 563 Plug and Play SCSI 563 SCSI Configuration Troubleshooting 564 SCSI Versus IDE 565 SCSI Hard Disk Evolution and Construction 565 Performance 569 SCSI Versus IDE: Advantages and Limitations 570 Recommended SCSI Host Adapters, Cables, and Terminators 571 9 Magnetic Storage Principles 573 Magnetic Storage 574 History of Magnetic Storage 574 How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 575 Read/Write Head Designs 579 Ferrite 579 Metal-In-Gap 580 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 1:22 PM Page vii This is the Current C–Head at the BOTTOM of the Page Thin Film 580 Magneto-Resistive Heads 581 Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 583 Head Sliders 583 Data Encoding Schemes 584 FM Encoding 586 MFM Encoding 586 RLL Encoding 587 Encoding Scheme Comparisons 588 Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 589 Capacity Measurements 590 Areal Density 591 10 Hard Disk Storage 595 Definition of a Hard Disk 596 Hard Drive Advancements 596 Hard Disk Drive Operation 597 The Ultimate Hard Disk Drive Analogy 599 Tracks and Sectors 600 Disk Formatting 604 Basic Hard Disk Drive Components 608 Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 609 Recording Media 610 Read/Write Heads 612 Head Actuator Mechanisms 613 Air Filters 621 Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 623 Spindle Motors 623 Logic Boards 624 Cables and Connectors 625 Configuration Items 626 The Faceplate or Bezel 626 Hard Disk Features 627 Capacity 627 Performance 630 Reliability 636 Cost 639 11 Floppy Disk Storage 641 History of the Floppy 642 Floppy Drive Interfaces 642 Drive Components 643 Read/Write Heads 644 The Head Actuator 646 The Spindle Motor 647 Circuit Boards 647 The Controller 647 The Faceplate 648 Connectors 648 The Floppy Disk Controller Cable 649 Contents vii Disk Physical Specifications and Operation 651 How the Operating System Uses a Disk 651 Cylinders 653 Clusters or Allocation Units 653 Disk Change 654 Types of Floppy Disk Drives 655 1.44MB 3 1/2'' Drives 655 2.88MB 3 1/2'' Drives 656 720KB 3 1/2'' Drives 657 1.2MB 5 1/4'' Drives 657 360KB 5 1/4'' Drives 658 Analyzing Floppy Disk Construction 658 Floppy Disk Media Types and Specifications 660 Caring for and Handling Floppy Disks and Drives 661 Airport X-Ray Machines and Metal Detectors 662 Drive-Installation Procedures 663 Troubleshooting Floppy Drives 663 Common Floppy Drive Error Messages— Causes and Solutions 664 12 High-Capacity Removable Storage 667 The Role of Removable-Media Drives 668 Extra Storage 668 Backing Up Your Data 668 Comparing Disk, Tape, and Flash Memory Technologies 669 Magnetic Disk Media 669 Magnetic Tape Media 669 Flash Memory Media 670 Interfaces for Removable Media Drives 670 Overview of Removable Magnetic Storage Devices 671 Iomega Zip 671 High-Capacity Floptical Drives 676 LS-120 (120MB) SuperDisk Drives 677 Hard-Disk-Size Removable-Media Drives 679 Jaz Drives 679 Castlewood Orb 680 Iomega Peerless 682 “Orphan” Removable-Media Drives 682 SyQuest Drives 682 Avatar Shark Parts and Drivers 683 Magneto-Optical Drives 683 Magneto-Optical Technology 683 Comparing MO to “Pure” Magnetic Media 685 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 viii 1:22 PM Page viii Contents This is the Chapter Title Removable Drive Letter Assignments 685 MS-DOS and Windows 9x/Me Disk Management 685 Windows NT/2000/XP Disk Management 687 Comparing Performance of Removable-Media Drives 688 Flash Card and Digital “Film” 689 How Flash Memory Works 689 Types of Flash Memory Devices 689 Moving Data in Flash Memory Devices to Your Computer 692 Microdrive Technology 694 Tape Drives 695 Hard-Disk-Based Alternatives to Tape Backup 696 Disadvantages of Tape Backup Drives 696 Advantages to Tape Backup Drives 697 Common Tape Backup Standards 697 Comparing Tape Backup Technologies 707 Choosing a Tape Backup Drive 709 Tape Drive Installation 711 Tape Drive Backup Software 711 Tape Drive Troubleshooting 712 Tape Retensioning 714 13 Optical Storage 715 What Is a CD-ROM? 716 CDs: A Brief History 717 CD-ROM Technology 717 Data Encoding on the Disc 728 Compact Disc and Drive Formats 733 Red Book—CD-DA 735 Yellow Book—CD-ROM 735 Green Book—CD-i 735 CD-ROM XA 736 Orange Book 739 Photo CD 741 White Book—Video CD 743 Blue Book—CD EXTRA 743 CD-ROM File Systems 744 High Sierra 744 ISO 9660 745 Joliet 746 Universal Disk Format 747 Macintosh HFS 747 Rock Ridge 747 DVD 748 DVD History 748 DVD Technology 749 DVD Formats and Standards 761 DVD Drive Compatibility 765 DVD Copy Protection 765 CD/DVD Drives and Specifications 768 Performance Specifications 768 Interface 771 Loading Mechanism 774 Other Drive Features 776 Adding a DVD Drive to Your System 777 Writable CDs 778 CD-R 779 CD-RW 782 Blu-ray Disc 785 MultiRead Specifications 787 How to Reliably Record CDs 788 Recording Software 792 Creating Music CDs 793 Recordable DVD Standards 798 DVD-RAM 799 DVD-R 800 DVD-RW 801 DVD+RW 801 CD/DVD Software and Drivers 803 DOS SCSI Adapter Driver 803 DOS ATAPI CD-ROM Device Driver 804 MSCDEX: Adding CDs to DOS/Win3.x 804 CD-ROM Support in Windows 9x and Windows NT 4.0 805 MS-DOS Drivers and Windows 9x 806 Creating a Bootable Floppy with CD-ROM Support 806 Creating a Rescue CD 807 Making a Bootable CD for Emergencies 807 Caring for Optical Media 808 Troubleshooting Optical Drives 809 Failure Reading a CD 809 Failure to Read CD-R, CD-RW Discs in CD-ROM or DVD Drive 810 ATAPI CD-ROM Drive Runs Slowly 810 Poor Results When Writing to CD-R Media 811 Trouble Reading CD-RW Discs on CD-ROM 811 Trouble Reading CD-R Discs on DVD Drive 811 Trouble Making Bootable CDs 811 14 Physical Drive Installation and Configuration 813 Installing All Types of Drives 814 Hard Disk Installation Procedures 814 Drive Configuration 815 Host Adapter Configuration 815 00 7455 fm 7/31/02 1:22 PM Page ix This is the Current C–Head at the BOTTOM of the Page Physical Installation 817 System Configuration 821 Formatting 822 Low-Level Formatting 822 Drive Partitioning 824 High-Level (Operating System) Formatting 830 FDISK and FORMAT Limitations 831 Replacing an Existing Drive 833 Drive Migration for MS-DOS Users 833 Drive Migration for Windows 9x/Me Users 833 Interfacing to Disk Drives 834 Hard Disk Drive Troubleshooting and Repair 836 Testing a Drive 837 Installing an Optical Drive 837 Avoiding Conflict: Get Your Cards in Order 838 Drive Configuration 838 External (SCSI) Drive Hookup 840 Internal Drive Installation 841 Ribbon Cable and Card Edge Connector 841 SCSI Chains: Internal, External, or Both 843 Floppy Drive Installation Procedures 845 15 Video Hardware 847 Video Display Technologies 848 How CRT Display Technology Works 848 DVI—Digital Signals for CRT Monitors 850 LCD Panels 851 Video Adapter Types 859 Monitor Selection Criteria 859 The Right Size 860 Resolution 861 Dot Pitch (CRTs) 863 Image Brightness and Contrast (LCD Panels) 864 Interlaced Versus Noninterlaced 865 Energy and Safety 865 Frequencies 867 Controls 871 Environment 871 Testing a Display 872 Maintaining Your Monitor 873 Video Display Adapters 874 Obsolete Display Adapters 875 Current Display Adapters 875 Super VGA 877 VESA SVGA Standards 878 Contents ix Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 878 Video Adapter Components 882 Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 884 Video RAM 885 The Digital-to-Analog Converter 889 The Bus 889 The Video Driver 892 Multiple Monitors 893 3D Graphics Accelerators 896 How 3D Accelerators Work 897 Common 3D Techniques 898 Advanced 3D Techniques 899 Application Programming Interfaces 903 3D Chipsets 903 Upgrading or Replacing Your Video Card 906 TV Tuner and Video Capture ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture